LUPUS (Lat., wolf ). A term denoting a form of tuberculosis of the skin appearing at first in small nodules. These nodules are of dark, reddish color, and are soft. They increase in size in time and sometimes form appreciable elevations while starting beneath the surface. They may become absorbed or may break down and ulcerate. If, the nodules remain small and undergo no further evolution, the variety is termed lupus maeulosus; when inflated and of considerable size, lupus tumidus; when shrunken and replaced by cicatrices, lupus exfoliatirus; when the nodules are scattered about in disorder, lupus disseminatus; when they break down and ulcerate, lupus cxulcerans or 'rodent ulcer.' The ulcers are not painful. but they follow the lymph channels and spread, tissue of all kinds, including muscle, cartilage, and bone, being involved in the destruction. Lupus of the face sometimes results in the loss of the nose (a favorite starting-point of the disease), the lips, the ears, and the cheeks. Frightful disfigurement results, and after the dis ease has been checked extensive plastic opera tions are necessary to restore the patient to an endurable condition. Next to the face, the ex tremities are the most common seat of lupus.
especially the forearms and legs. The mucous membranes may he attacked extensively.
There are no drugs that cause the absorption of the neoplasm. Some favorable results have followed the use of Koch's tuberculin 11. hut it is still under experiment. Injections of thiosinamin were partially successful in the hands of Hebra. Finsen's phototherapy (q.v.) has proved success ful in several eases, and the X-ray (q.v.) has also been suceessful. Curetting, scarification, excision, and caustics have each benefited some eases. The usual prophylaxis against tubercule infection must be rigidly observed. See TUBERCU 1.O515. Consult: Hyde. Diseases of the Skin (Philadelphia, 6th ed., 1901) ; and Finsen, Photothcrapy, trans. by Sequeira (London. 1901) .
LUR (Saved., Nom., Dan., trumpet, from Icel. ludr, hollowed piece of wood ). An instrument made from hirch-bark, and used by the shepherds of Scandinavia as the alpenhorn is used in Switz erland. Recently some bronze hors of great an tiquity have been unearthed in Sweden and Den mark. These specimens vary in length from 5 to feet, and the long, slender tube bends around in a double curve.