LULLY, RAYMOND ( RAIMUNDO LULU). RAMON LULL) (c.1935-1315). One of the remarkable men of the thirteenth century and a pioneer in Europe in the study of the Arabic lang,uage and Mohammedanism. lle was born at Pal ma, on the island of Majorca, of good family, about 1235. In his youth he led a dissolute life as courtier and soldier. But about 1260 he with drew to solitude, and for five years led the her mit's life. The sudden change produced a fervid and enthusiastic state of mind, under the influ ence of which Dilly formed the project of a. spiritual crusade for the conversion of the Mils sulmans, an idea he never afterwards abandoned. In 1272 lie entered the Third Order of Saint Francis. and two or three years later persuaded King James of Aragon to found a monastery in Majorca to train missionaries for his project. In pursuance of this plan he studied theology, philosophy, and the Arabic language. The better to prosecute his studies, he betook himself to Paris, and received his degree there in 1288. He returned to Spain, where he taught and strove to enlist popes and princes in his enterprise. His success was not great, and at the end of 1991 or beginning of 1292 he went to Tunis to carry on his work single-handed. He drew large crowds of attentive hearers, and held disputations with learned Mohammedans. who, however, were as anxious to convert him as he to convert them, and the result was that little impression was made by either of the parties. Finally, however, Luny was thrown into prison and expelled from the country. After lecturing at Naples for sev eral years. he proceeded to Rome; thence to his native island of Majorca, where he labored for the conversion of the Mohammedans and Jews; thence to Cyprus and Armenia, zealously exerting himself to bring back the different schismatic parties of the Oriental Church to orthodoxy. In 1300-07 he again undertook to prove the truth of Christianity to the Mussulmans of Africa, and was again expelled. He subsequently went to
Paris, and lectured against the principles of AverrOs. His appeals to the Pope were not altogether fruitless. inasmueh as he induced Clement V. to provide for instruction in Orien tal languages at Rome, Paris. Oxford, Bologna, and Salamanca. In 1315 Dilly undertook a. third mission to Africa. Eager for martyr dom, he threatened the people with divine judg ment if they refused to abjure Mohammedan ism. At Tunis he was dragged out of the city, stoned, and died of his wounds on a ves sel at sea near the island of Cabrera, June 30, 1315. His body was carried to Majorca, a fine tomb was erected, and stories of miracles have gathered about it. Lully's system of logic, to the elaboration and dissemination of which he gave much time and labor, professed to aid the mind in the acquisition and retention of knowledge by systematic arrangement of subjects and ideas and a fantastic scheme of mechanical help. It is set forth in his Ars Magna. He wrote a great num ber of treatises, theological. philosophical. and dealing with alchemy. in which he WI in the repute of a master. Ilis reported achievements in this line, which gained him the title of doctor Manzi vatissinins, are no doubt exaggerated, but he made certain real and valuable discoveries. His style is involved. figurative. and obscure. An incomplete and uncritical edition of his works, begun by Salzinger, appeared in eight volumes, at Mainz. 1721 ' new edition has been un dertaken by Rosso116 ,(Palma, sqq.). For his life, consult: Ileitlenicb (Berlin. 185S), and Brambaeh (Karlsruhe, 1893) ; consult also: Hesehichto der Philosophic (Mainz, 1575) ; Pruitt], tiesehichte der Logik, yol. iii. (Leipzig, 1847) Pelayo, Historic (le log hetcro doxos (Madrid, 1880) ; Zwemer, Raymond Lally, First Missionary to the Moslem York, I9(12) ; Frost, The .I rt (lc Conte»zpla•io of Ramon Lull (Baltimore, 19(13).