LAWRENCE, WILLIAM 13Eien (1800-S1). An American jurist and political leader, horn in New York City and educated at Columbia College. ITe studied law and after two years' reshlenee in Europe was admitted to the New bar in 1823. In I82G-27 he was secretsof the Ana-rival] Legation in London under Gallatin, served until 18•8 as chargi; d'alfaires, re turned to America in 1832, and having entered into partnership with Hamilton Fish, soon at tained distinction in the practice of law. Ile lec tured for a time on political economy at Colum bia College. and was one of the promoters of the Erie Hailroad. Ile made Rhode Island his per manent home in 1850, Lieutenant-Gov ernor in 1851, acted as Governor in 1852, and was a member of the State Constitutional Con vention of 1S53. lie lectured on international law in Columbian University. Washington, D. C., and became widely known for his interpretation of disputes arising out of the provisions of the Treaty of Washington of 1871. His writings are
marked by a broad and liberal interpretation of international relations. Chief among them are: The Bank of the United States (1831) ; Institu tions of the United States (1S32) ; Discourses on Political Economy (1834) ; Biographi•:/ .1/emair of Albert Gallatin (1843) ; The Law of Charita ble Uses (1S45) ; an annotated edition of Whea ton's E/emen/s of International Late (1855) ; 1 'isita /ion and Search. ( 1858 ) ; sur les i'lanents du Broil international (4 vols., 18.68-80) ; The Treaty of Washington (1871); Belligerent and Sorereign Rights as Regards Neutrals During the War of Secession. (1873); Eludes sun la jurisdiction eonsulaire et sun Fex tradition (1SS0).