MENCIUS, itl@nIshils ( Latinized form of Chinese AltNG-TSE or MUNG-TSE) (e.371-287 B.C.). A Chinese sage, ranking next after Confucius in the estimation of the Chinese. He was born about 371 (108 years after the death of Confucius), in the small Principality of Tsow in the Province. of Shantung, at no great distance from the hirth place of Confucius. As a youth he was known as 11Sng K'o. His father died when the future philosopher was only three years old. The widow gave the fatherless boy every attention, and in due eourse he went to school. but does not seem at first to have been specially diligent or enthu siastic in his studies. It is said that lie studied later with the disciples of Tszii-tse—the son of Confucius—and from them learned the doc trines of the Master, of whom he became an enthusiastic admirer. When he was forty he ap peared as a public teacher with a large following of disciples. Like Confucius, lie moved about from State to State, inculcating, expounding, and amplifying the Confucian teaching. He was more courageous and outspoken than Confucius, and Ws.; fearless in following his teachings to their logical consequences. He taught that nian's nature is good, though it may appear ()ther m ise, and that all hi: vices and all his mis fortunes are due to evil influences from without. Humanity, righteousne:s, propriety. and knowl edye are as natural to man as his four limbs. \\ hat is wanted is a return to this original good ness, and this can he accomplished only by the rectification of the heart. 11c laid special stress on humanity and righteousness, one the 111 the other. as the two main elements in man's moral being. humanity representing the fullness of virtue in the individual, and right eousne.ss the due observance of all man owes to his fellow men. "hitinanity is internal," he says: "righteousness external." ''There has never been a man trained to humanity who neglected his parents; nor one who, having been trained to made his sovereign an after consideration." in politics he taught that gov ernment is from t:orl, but k for the pv4)ple. whose welta•e is of supreme importance: and he em phatically inculcated the application of these two prineiples—Humanity and Righteousness— to the conduct of rulers. And lie did not
hesitate to indicate the duty of the subject in regard to the `removal* of oppressive rulers o• wicked men in high places. when asked if a subject, might put his sovereign to death.
•'lle who outrages the humanity proper to his nature," he said, "is called a robber; lie who outrages righteousness is called a rullian. The robber and the ruffian we call a mere fellow. I have loan! of the cutting MT of Chow Sin [the ferocious tyrant of the Shang dynasty, we. 11231, but I have not heard in his ease of putting a sovereign to death :"—only a cruel monster, a mere fellow.
Mencius died at eighty-four, after passing the last fifteen years of his life in retirement, during which he edited the Book History t of and prepared with the aid of sours• of his disciples a record of his sayings and of his conversations with the Princes—a fact \Odell may account for their greater fullness as parVII 11111I (1111,/. (If I c nfurins. II is the last of OW Pone Books which form the basis of Ccm fucian philosophy. 111- was buried Dear the present 'Isom [lien. in Shantung. where there is a temple in his honor, and where his descendants still dwell. it was not till the second century Am. that his NvritingA were fully studied and ap preciated. In 11153 he was ereated Duke of Tsou ; in 11155 hr was admitted into the Temple of Confucius as an Assoeiale, and titles were conferred on his father and mother.
Pont whit\ en Y. Le IIupg.Sr 'if(ssies. yids II. ( London and Hong Kong, IsG11, oontaining the Chinese text of the Mencian discourses, with a translation in English, Crllmal Notes, Prolego mena, .ind a Lite; 1i•notSat, \wireoit.t: tocionge.s : Faber, Line all/ dhisw•her Grum/Inge, ogler Lehr !owl ff des ehi»csisrhen Philosophen I.:11)..11dd, 15771, or Ilutrhiinson's translation, Vim/ of llencius (London and Tong Kong, 1'0101 .1"1111-4.11. 3111111... V1,1. 11.. in (//'1?•// 111 1 Rr /11lioel WM' Their K, hnhtn M 1mIirrrkn1 I;e boon 15751 : and WGalters• .t Guide In the if 'nide of Confucius (Shanghai, P479),