MODENA. A city in Northern Italy, for merly the capital of the Duchy of :Modena and now the capital of the province of the same name, situated in a rich gardened plain between the Panaro and the Seechia. 24 miles northwest of Bologna (Map: Italy. E 3). A navigable canal connects it with both rivers. It is a city of spa dons streets and roomy arcades. and is divided into an old and a new part by the historic Via _Emilia. On the main piazza rises the .fine Romanesque cathedral, dating from 1099, by Lan franco. It was restored in 1893. The facade is embellished with curious sculptures. The ex terior is also enriched by a rose window, and by a colonnade encircling the whole edifice. The in terim• is at. first disappointing. but is in reality imposing. There are here a good altar-piece by Dosso Dossi and a fine group by Mazzoni. The famous Campanile, dating from 1224, is over 300 feet high. It leans slightly. The Gothic Church of San Francesco has an immense and excellent terra-cotta 'Descent from the Cross' by Begarelli. The Church of San l'ietro is remarkable for its fine brick Renaissance facade.
Modena is rich in palaces. The Palace Al bergo Arti (1707) now holds the municipal museum, containing several interesting collec tions. The historic library here—Biblioteca Es tense, one of the most famous in Italy—has 132,000 volumes, and also over 8000 INISS,s some of them very rare. Tt possesses in addition a
coin collection and museum of anvhrg•ology. Its picture gallery is quite well known. examples by Correggio, Dosso Dossi. Guido Beni. and Velazquez. The splendid ducal palace dating from 1635 is now used for a mili tart'• school. Modena has statues of Tag soni and Victor Emmanuel 11., and an excellent religious group by Mazzoni. The trade of :Mo dena is not very important. There are weekly eattle markets—grain, beef, sausages, fruit, wine, and liquors being chiefly dealt in. The manufac tures are few. Linen and woolen goods, leather, hats, vinegar•, glass, and pottery are produced. Silk is woven, but less extensively than formerly.
In art history Modena is known for its terra cottas. It is the seat of an archbishop, and has a university, a `Konvikt,' a military school for infantry and cavalry, a technical institute, a technical school, an agricultural college, and an academy of fine arts. The university, founded in 1683, has three faculties, and a pharmaceutical and a veterinary school. The number of students is over 700. The public gardens arc lovely. and the site of the former ramparts serves as a plea sure ground. Population ( commune I. in 1901, 64,843. For history, see \lonEx.t (duchy).