MONGOL DYNASTIES (Mongolian. prob ably from 111011y, brave) . From the earliest times the tribes that became known as 'Mongols about the twelfth eentury dwelt in Eastern Asia, in and about the modern Mongolia. They were organized and made a great eonquering power by Genghis Khan (11(12-1227). The great. Asi atic till which was made his by conquest WAS divided among his sons, of whom IIgotai received Northern China and Mongolia and succeeded his father as Great Khan. Under Kiiblai Khan. the grandson of Genghis, who became Great Khan in 1259, the empire was practieally divided into fmir parts. The first. actually ruled by the Great. Khan. ineluded China. Korea. Mongolia, Nlanelturia. and Tibet, with its capital at Pe king. (See Krnn.sl KHAN and CHINESE EMPIRE.) The second, the :\liddle Tatar Empire. given by Genghis to his son Teliagatai. ineluded Transoxiana. Afghanistan. and a part of Chinese Turkestan. Its history differs in no way from that of other Asiatic" States until, under a weak descendant of Tellagatai, the real power fell into the hands of the ruthless Tamerlane or Timor (q.v.). who made Samarkand the capital of his empire. The third division of the empire of Genghis Khan, the Empire of Kiptehak (q.v.), or the Golden was assigned to Batu, a grandson of Genghis by his eldest Sim dujy. lu 1237 a vast Mongol horde entered Russia (q.v.), and after carrying destruction through that country with tire and sword and forcing the princes to do homage, pressed into Poland and Germany, and on the field known as the Wahl statt, near Liegnitz, in Silesia. defeated an army of Poles, Silesians, and Teutonic Knights in April, 1241, suffering such heavy losses, however, as to he compelled to retreat. In the same year another army under Batu Khan over whelmed the. Hungarians under their King, 1341a IV. In 1242 Batu Khan was recalled to Asia by the news of the death of Ggotai. As long as the House of Batu continued the Kiptehak Mongols or Tatars held Russia in vassalage. and kept Eastern Europe in constant terror. They met their first defeat at the hands of the Russians in 1380: but their strength was most seriously undermined by the new Tatar invasion under Timm. (q.v.) in 1389. The em pire dissolved into the separate khanates of Kazan. Astrakhan, and the Crimea. In 1480 the Russians emancipated themselves from the over lordship of the Mongols. The khans of the Crimea became vassals of the Turkish sultans in 1475. Kazan was conquered by Ivan the Ter rible of Russia in 1552, and Astrakhan in 1554.
The fourth division included Persia. f:eorgia, Armenia, Khorasan, and part of Asia Minor. In 1253 Mangu. the fourth Great Khan, a grand son of Genghis, sent his brother Ilulaku to gov ern this part of the empire and to complete the con quest begun by Genghis. Bulaku crossed the Oxus, destroyed the sect of the Assassins (q.v.), took Bagdad, and put an end to the Abbas side caliphate (1258). lie reduced Persia to complete subjection, and added Mosul. Alesopo tamia, Syria. and a large part of Asia Minor to the Mongol conquests. lie became the founder of a dynasty known as the Ilkhans, which ruled over Persia till 1335. This religion was the pure theism of his house, and he was broadly tolerant toward both Christian and Moslem. His wife was a Christian. He established his capital at Maraghah., in Azer
baijan, and there maintained a court. where science and the arts were liberally cultivated. Hulaku assumed independent sovereignty upon the death of Khan. He died in 1265, and was succeeded by his son Abaka, whose ability and virtues excelled those of his father. lie had the advantage of being able to treat the country as an organizer rather than as a conqueror. The son of a Christian mother, he married a daughter of the Greek Emperor, Michael Pa heologus, and is thought to have been himself a Christian. He was a devoted patron of learning. llis reign was for the most part peaceful: but he expelled from his realms a Tatar army. de feating the invaders near Herat. lie died in 1282. Abaka Khan was succeeded by his brother. baptized under the Christian name of Nicholas (Mongol Nikudiln), who became a Mohammedan and persecuted the Christians and Mongols until he was warned to desist by his powerful mule, Kublai Khan. When he apostatized he took the name of Ahmed. He was put to death in 1284 by Argun, the son of Abaka, who then ascended the throne. Ile followed the liberal and pro Christian traditions of his father and grand father. Ile opened diplomatic relations with Eu rope, whither he sent a Genoese, Buscarelli. as his agent. Ile proposed to make an alliance with the Pope, England, and France against the Mo hammedan power. Marco Polo, the famous Vene tian traveler, conducted a Alongid bride from the Court of Kublai to Argun, but the latter died before their arrival, in 1291. llis successor, Kai Katu, died in 1294, and the direct succes sion was restored by Ghazal' Khan, the son of Argun. He waged a successful war with the Egyptian Sultan, and continued the friendly in tercourse with Europe which his father had begun. In his later years he adopted Mohamme danism. Ile was a patron of literature, like his predecessors, and caused a history of the Mon gols to be written by one of the scholars at Lis Court. Ile made nanny improvements. es pecially in the administration of justice. and built roads and established post routes. Ile died in 1303. His brother and successor. Mo hammed Kudalm made Es-Sultaniyeh his capital, attached himself to the sect of Ali, and died in 1316. The son of the last prince, Alm Said, was a mere child, and the experience of absolute monarchies. a struggle for power between leading chiefs, fol lowed his accession, and introduced the seeds of weakness into the Abingol Dominion. Juban. who successful in this rivalry, married the young Khan's sister: but when Abu Said became of age be showed the spirit of his race, and defeated and killed his aspiring vassal in 1327. Ills death in 1335 was the practical end of the Mon gol monarchy in Persia. llis successors until 1344 were mere puppets in the hands of ambi tious chiefs, and anarchy made easy the con quests of Timor. Timor was likewise of :Mongol origin, and akin to the family of Gen ghis. The Mogul (or 'Mongol) dynasty in India (q.v.) was founded by one of his descendants. Baber, in 1526. Consult: Howarth, History of the Mongols (4 yids., 1876-88I : Mark ham, History of Persifi (London, 1874); Vnlo, Cathay (Ind Ow )font Thithcr (London, 18)61: Hammer-Purgstall. GPsch /eh lc de-r goldenen Horde (Pest. 1840) : id., (les:vial-hie der Urbane (Darmstadt, 1842).