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art, die and century

OTHER Ontuats. Of all the Western Orders, only one returned in the Ages to the anchoretic idea and expressed it in beautiful architectural movements. This was the Carthusian Order ((ihartreux) of Saint Bruno• founded in the eleventh century. The individual cell life of each member determined the form and character of the monastic buildings, which covered a great extent of ground. usually around two immense cloisters or open courts.

The secularizing of art, which began in the thirteenth century. was carried further forward by each century of the lienaissanee. 'What the art-guilds commenced humanism completed. The monastic Orders exercised no influence in art after the fourteenth century. even though some individual members were prominent. artists, such as Fra. Angelieo, Filippo Lippi. Bartolommeo, the painters; Fra Gioconda the architect; etc.

BinumatAnnY. The entire theme of monastic art is so interwoven with the history of Chris tian art as a whole. as to have eluded treatment.

Lenoir, monastique (Paris, 1852 5(1) , has given a very good summary of this part of the subject. Other general works are: Wiese, l clue das Ferhaltnis der Kunst zur Religion (nerlin, !KS); Springer. klosterleben and K lusted; u ( Conn, SSG) ; Schlosser, Die obendlandisclic Klost cra nla ye des frUheren 11i1teloflee.s (Vienna. ISS9); Kraus. (leschichte der ehristlichen Kunst (Freiburg. IS96); for the Basilicas, Broekhaus. Die Kunst in den Kliistera (Leipzig, 18901. and Balhr. Le won fiSi O're by:1111611 de rebras,so C Part., IS97); for the Benedictines. kriitzinger. Die Bcnediktiner ordcn und die IS7(1); for the Cistereians, Sharpe, The Architerture of the Cistercians (London. 1871) for the Dominicans and Franciseans, Enlart. Origines francuises de /'architecture gothique en Italie (Paris. 1891). Consult. also, the authorities referred to under ellatsriAN Ala; BENEnicrIsEs; Cismact.?Ns.