With the death of Smith rival claims to the prophetic suceessorship arose between Brigham Young, J. .J. Strang, and Smith's own son. The `Strangite.s' disappeared with the killing of their leader in 185; because of his polygamous prac tices. The 'Young Josephit es,' however, founded in 1852 the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and the body still exists under the presidency of Joseph Smith, 3d. It claims to he the continuation of the original Church of Latter-Day Saints, and has been recog nized as such by the courts. It maintains that the doctrines of plurality and community of wives are heresies. The headquarters of the Church are at Lamoni, Iowa. It has a publishing house, and issues two weekly papers (Zion's Hope, for Sunday-schools, and the Saints' Herald, a general religious weekly and the official organ), a month ly magazine (Aaiun/a Leares) for young people, and books and tracts. It maintains Gracelaml College and a home for the aged poor. There is another establishment at independence, :Mo.. with a printing press, whence are issued Zion's Ensign, a weekly paper, hooks, and tracts. The Church has about 45,000 members.
The logical successor of Smith was Brigham Young. Young joined the Mormon Church in New York State ou April 14, 1832, and in the same year was sent In- the Prophet from Kirt land on a missionary tour in Canada. Returning to Ohio with a band of converts in 1834. he went with the 'Army of Zion' to Missouri as one of the `captains of tens.' In 1S35 he was appointed one of the original Quorum of Twelve. Young as sisted Smith in his flight to Missouri in 183g, and two years after sailed to Liverpool 011a mis sion. The Prophet was fond of him, and Young,'s faithfulness to the cause is shown by his being left President of the Twelve upon Smith's assassi nation.
The Prophet's tragic death was of no avail against the domestic enemies of the Church. In January, 1845, the Nauvoo charter was repealed. The situation being recognized as intolerable, Young officially arranged to leave the country in the spring, a delegation having previously been sent out to investigate locations in California and Oregon. The final choice of Utah was due to a chance meeting with some trappers from the Great Salt Lake Valley. The organization of the 'Mormon exodus was in many respects re markable. A pioneer company of young men was first sent ahead to plant crops. which the follow ing companies should reap. Meanwhile Nanvoo had been turned info a vast wagon shop, so that the first company comprised a train of one thou sand wagons. This 'Camp of which in cluded President Young and the Twelve Apostles, was subdivided into companies of from fifty to sixty wagons in charge of captains of fifties, captains of tens, and contracting commissaries. 1 he versatility of the American pioneer Was dis 1la3ed in the estaddislimeut of way stations, with tali...al, repair shops and with a flouring mill (Jung himself. The largest company, Which started from Elk Horn River on July 4th, included 1553 pt•rsons, with 566 wagons. By
1848 all the MOIDIons had crossed the plains except a few left on the Missouri as forwarding agents fur emigrants front the Eastern States and Europe.
By March, 1848, the population of Salt Lake City numbered 1671, with 423 houses built. In spite of the failure of the crops and the conse quent suffering of the first winter, glowing ac counts of the mew Zion were sent to England, with the result that within two years the English immigrants included men of many professions and trades. Young early projected cotton, woolen, and glass factories, for there were no sources for inanufaetured goods nearer than one thousand miles. 111 all this the aim of the leaders was to establish a State entirely self-supporting. lint the balance sheet in 1852 showed it deficit Young undertook to retrench expenses by giving less as sistance to immigrants, but this policy turned out disastrously. The ecomonic salvation of Mot. mondom was not due to the financial abilities of the body, but to outside causes. Abundance of money was brought. to Salt Lake City by those who were hastening to California for gold. and by the building of the Paeitie Railroad.
The political success of Mormonism was equally fortuitous. The war with Mexico having transferred the sovereignty of this region to the United States Government, on March 4. 1549, a convention at Salt Lake City adopted a con stitution for the State of Deseret. The eon fusion of the :Mormon political ideas was mani fested in vatting Deseret a State and at the same time in dispatching a Territorial delegate to Washington. Babbitt's application was rej4.eted largely beeause of the hostility of the Illinois Democrats.
The growth of Young's dictatorship depended on mixed personal and religious reasons. He was known as hard-working 'Brigham Yonng; and his word was eounted the word of god to his people. 'Flue power of the head of the Chureh was also inereased by the issuance of paper money, by the strict application of the tithing system, and by the order that no man should hoard up his property. Young's IlddreQ.e: in the temple show that, with the ileVellpinerit of his despotism, there came a loss of personal liberty among the laity. In eollnection with the School of the Prophets lie appointed Church confessors to go aitaally all families. In 18511 (spurred the so alled in which the discontented were weeded nut After the murder of the would-be apostate. B. Parrish, a deed instigated by Young himself, there eame the rganiiation 4f four hundred 'Wolf Hunters.' whose object was to pre'c'ut such rare escapes as that of Frederick Lobo and his wife. By 1556 the doetritw of blond atonement was in opera Apostasy was practically declared a capital to he atoned for only by having the blood upon the ground, and ltosmos she wanted to marry his stepdaughter against the wishes of the ward had his throat cut by the ecclesiastical executioners, so that his blood might run into his freshly dug grave.