EARLY FORMS. The periodical, as thus defined, originated in France in the seventeenth century, and in the form of the critical literary journal. The first example of it is also one of the most famous and the longest lived, for its publication has continued, though with many interruptions, until the present day—namely the Journal des S a rants. The idea which it embodied was con ceived about 1663 by the historian who proposed to establish a weekly journal in which should 1444 "made known what was happening in the republic of letters." His project came to nothing; hut in 1064 Denis de Salto, Sicur de la Coudraye, under the 11:1111e of Sieur de IlMouville, obtained the privilege of issuing a periodical of this kind, and the first number of the Journal dct Os appeared on January 3, 1663. its plan included reviews of new' books. report, of seien title discoveries, of notices, and general information of interest to the learned., world. hallo associated with himself a number of schol ars. among them the Abb6 Gallois, who succeeded him as editor. The freedom —or, as it appeared to an age not accustomed to the ways of the re viewer, arroganee—with which the me' j011111:11 criticised 110111 looks :111(1 (what was more seri ous) ecclesiastical affairs promptly brought it into trouble, and after the appearance of the thir teenth number it was suppressed. Colbert, however, who recognized its value, decided to it, and on Sallo's refusal to con sent to the demanded abridgment of his freedom, placed it (1000) in the hands of the Ablas Cal lois, who conducted it negligently, issued it very irregularly and practically abandoned it in 1674. 111 1675 pllbliention was resumed under the editorship of the Abbe de la Roque, who was succeeded in 1087 by L. Cousin. in 1701 it passed under the editorial control of a commis sion of literary men and was conducted in this way until 1723. After a year of suspended ani mation it was reissued under the 44 the Alb( - Bignon and the A141.4474 Desfontaines. An other interruption of publication was caused by the Revolution in 1792, and an attempt to revive it in 1796 was a failure. it was finally reustab
li4c41 (April 15.1510) under the Restoration and placed under the of a commission the different (lasses of the Institute. Seven years after the appearance of the Journal d, s ft was founded the second French ry periodical, the It I mut., Gti bin t of .roan Don neau de Viz.C.„ which, under a variety of titles, con tinued—with interruptions—to exist until 1823; in 1717 it received the name of Me reure de Fru nee. by which it is commonly known. In ad dition to criticism. poetry, and other literary material, it dealt with topics of the must diverse kinds. including current news; and it has, accordingly. a place in the history of journalism. Among its editors were Thomas Corneille, whom Viz,s associated with himself in 1090, and Mar immtel. In the same year (1072) with the lh /Tare Galant, Claude Blondean and Gabriel Gui4ret began the first legal periodical, the Jour nal du Valais: in 1679 appeared the Nourelles de'eourertes sum limb's les parties de let nu'dceine (3 vols.) of Nieholas 41e Blegny—memoirs pub lished Lv an 'academy' at whose head Blegnv had placed himself—whieh may be regarded as the first medical journal; and in 1050 was issued by the Jean-Paul de In Roque the first pros pectus of a religious periodical—the The publication of the last named was forbidden, and in 1690 La Roque began the sue l'histoire realAsjnst blur, of which only one volume was issued. A medical journal—Let ,lourneau.r dr Me/keine, etc.--which he started in 1683 was equally unfortunate. Other notable periodieals of French origin (but printed in Holland) dating from the seventeenth century are the Nouvelles de I'm r4ublique des /rttrcs, founded by the celebrated Pierre Bayle in 1054, and conducted by him for three years (it survived until 1715) ; the llistoire des ouvrayes des savants of Henri Basnage de Beanval, begun in 1087 and continued until the middle of 1709; and the BibliothCque unirerselle et historique of Jean Leclerc, the noted critic, which was issued in 1086-93.