GENERAL DESCRIPTION. Peking consists of two parts of different shapes, sizes, and dates: The Tatar or city, which lies to the north, and the Chinese or city, which adjoins the other on the south, the south wall of the Tatar city forming the main part of the mirth wall of the Chinese city. The former, which is nearly square, has a circuit of about 12.3 English miles, and the latter, which has its greatest extension from west to east, is an imperfect parallelogram measuring, five miles by two. The walls of both cities are of earth and cone role. faced within and without with brick. Those of the Tatar city are 40 feet high, (12 feet thick at the base, and 34 at the top, access from within to the top being by stone-paved ramparts. The walls arc strength ened at intervals of 60 yards by huge buttresses which project outward 50 feet, and the parapets of both and buttresses are loopholed and crenelated. The Chinese city walls are only 30 feet high. and 25 feet thick at the base. These walls are pierced by 16 gales, 9 of which are in the Tatar city (3 in the south wall, communi cating, with the Chinese city, and 2 in cavil of the other three sides). Of the 7 gates in the Chinese city, 3 are in the south wall, I me in the cast wall, one in the west, and 2 in those portions of the north wall which project east and west for a of a mile beyond the common wall of the Tatar and Chinese cif h-a, and open toward the north. Each gate is protected by a demi lune or enceinte. and is surmounted by a lofty three-storied tower 99 Chinese feet (about 119 English feet) in height, and covered with green glazed tiles. The Chien mien, or 'Front in the centre of the south wall of the Tatar city, like the Yung-ting gate of the south wall of the Chinese city, has 3 entrances, the one in the centre being reserved for the Emperor. All gates are closed at sunset.
The Chinese city, built in 1543, is newer than the Tatar eity, which was built by Knhlai Khan in 1267-71. It contains many vacant
spaces, hut the bulk of the population is here. Entering by the Yung-ling gate in the south wall, a roadway 2 miles in length leads due north to the or 'Front Gale.' the main entrance to the Tatar city. On the right or east side of this roadway stands the inelosure (one square mile in extent) containing the Altar of Heaven. surrounded with temples and shrines. in cluding the circular triple-roofed Temple of Heaven, about 1111 English feet high. It was burn ed down in 1R89. but has been rebuilt, Oregon pine being used for the pillars. It is roofed with blue porcelain tiles. Here at midnight of the winter solstice, the Emperor, after due fasting and prayer, worships Shang-ti, the 'Supreme Ruler,' with prayer, hymns, prostrations, and burnt-of ferings of oxen, sheep, hares, etc., and o1 silk, jade, and other precious things. On the west side of the roadway stands the Temple of Agriculture, dedicated to Shin-ming ( q.v.) , t he 'Divine Husbandman.' In this spot every year at the 'opening of the Emperor plows a furrow or two and thus inaugurates for the year the principal industry of his people. In the Chinese city most of the mercantile business of the city is carried on. It also has a powder factory, an Imperial pottery, a mosque, and many theatres. Here also is the fashionable promenade known as Booksellers Street, where curios of all sorts, precious stones, etc., can be bought. Proceeding northward about half way to the entrance to the Tatar city is a magnificent marble bridge, an essential, according to the requirements of Ffing shui. Within the Tatar city the first important cross street to the right is 'Legation a macadamized thoroughfare, extending southeast wardly. Here are the foreign legations, the head quarters of the imperial maritime customs, the hotel, the two foreign banks, etc.; and here the fnry of the bloody Boxer outbreak concentrated as far as the city of Peking was concerned.