PARIS, LOUIS PHILIPPE D'ORLf:ANS, Count of (1838-94). Pretender to the crown of France. He was born in Paris, August 24, 1838, being the eldest son of Ferdinand. Duke of Orleans, and grandson of Louis Philippe. On the death of his father in 1842 the Count of Paris became the French heir apparent. lie was carefully educated in Germany and later in Eng land, whither his mother had removed after the events of 1848. A journey to Syria with his brother, the Duke of Chartres, in 1839. resulted in the publication of a journal of the voyage, entitled Dumas et lc Libaa. Early in 1861 the Count of Paris became interested in the Civil War in the 'United States, offered his services with his brother's to the Federal Government, and with their uncle, the Prince de Joinville. the two were attached to the staff of General McClellan, with the rank of captain. They re mained in active and efficient service in all the disastrous battles of that campaign, and only retired when the attitude of France toward Mexico gave cause of offense to the United States. The Count of Paris returned to England in the summer of 1802, and shortly afterwards began to appear as a contributor to the Reruc des Deux Morales, though under a nom de plume. In 1864 he married his cousin Isabella, the daughter of the Duke of Montpensier. In 1871
he was chosen to the National Assembly, which voted that his property in France, confiscated by Napoleon, should he restored. In 1873 the Count of Paris made a formal resignation of the claims of his family to the throne of France by a visit to the Count of Chambord at Frohs dorff, but after the latter's death in 1883 lie was generally regarded as the Count of Chambord's successor and as the chief of the Legitimist Party. By the Expulsion Act of 1886 the Count of Paris and his family were compelled to leave France. He settled in England and devoted him self literary pursuits, though occasionally issuing a royal manifesto to the people of France. Of his eight children, the most noteworthy is the eldest, Philippe, Duke of Orleans. The Count of Paris revisited the United States, where he was well received, in 1890. He died at Stowe House, Buckinghamshire, England. September 8, 1894. Of his writings, the most important are: De la situa tion des outliers en Anyletcrre (1869), which has been translated into English and German, and Ilistoire de la guerre cirilc en AnWrique (1874-75). an able military history, which has been translated.