FnAxcr.. Owing to the intelligent patronage of the State, as well as to the artistic character of the people, the hegemony in the fine arts in the nineteenth century, especially in painting. belonged to France. here the epoch-making movements in its development hare originated. and the chief representatives have appeared.
The first great factor in Modern painting was the classical reaction upon the Rococo art of the ancien corresponding with the French llevolution in politics. Neglecting the essentially pictorial attributes, it sought the chief beauty of art in form, as shown in ancient sculpture, and preferred to depict strietly classic subjects. The leader was David (1748-1825), dictator of art under the Republic and the first Empire, where his teach ings prevailed for half a century. Ms dignified and statuesque style was continued by many pupils, among whom were Girodet, (luirin, Re gnault, Vincent, Prud'hon (1758-1823), a good colorist, who stood rather apart from the rest, while Gros (1771-1835), in his Napoleonic bat tle-pieces, led the way toward Romanticism. In gres (1780-1867) modified Classicism by the study of Raphael and the great Italians, greatly improving its modeling. To his influence the fine draughtsmanship of the modern French school is perhaps chiefly due.
Correspiniding with the romantic revolt in lit erature was one against the prevailing classic tra ditions in painting, which began about 1830. Romanticism saw in the expression of the paint er's emotional nature the highest beauty of art. Disregarding classical restraint in line and com position, it placed the chief emphasis upon color and natural truth. GC•ricault (1791-1824) made the beginning, but upon his early death the lead ership passed to Delacroix (1799-1863). In prismatic colors and with regard for the general effect only, he depicted tragic subjects in a high ly dramatic manlier. His disciples include the realist Gigoux, the younger Isahey. and others who painted historical subjects, like Devilria, Cogniet, Roqueplan, Robert Fleury. The Ori entalists were Romanticists. who, following De lacroix's example, went to the Orient for sub jects. Among the best known are Decamps ( 1803-60 ) , Dlarilhat ( 1811-47 ) , and (1820-76). To the same group belong later the painters Thfodore Frere and '/.lent, the latter famous for Venetian scenes, and Regnault ( 1843 71), also a fine portraitist.
The Barbison painters represented the emotion al impulse of Romanticism as applied to land scape. Influenced by the p/cia air work of Constable and Bonington, they went direct ly to nature, portraying it with fine feeling for light, atmosphere, and color. Their pictures were never photographic, but expressions of po etic moods. Corot (1796-1875) was the lyric tal ent of the group, the painter of the silvery tones of morning and evening; Rousseau (1812-67), the epic, treating the majestic phases of nature; Jules Duprt, the dramatic; Diaz, the fantastic. To the same group belong Daubigny (1817-78), Chintreuil, and Francais, and later painters like Cazin and Harpignies, the latter being rather realistic. The most prominent animal painters were Troyon (1810-651.. who renders the char acter of cattle in truthful fashion; Jaques, the sheep painter, and Van Mareke, pupil of Troyon. More realistic and far less artistic in feeling are the animal painters Auguste and Rosa Bon heur. At Barbison also lived Jean Francois (1814-75), who has depicted the dignity of life and labor of the French peasant with great force and simplicity and high artistic feel ing. Jules Breton (1827—) is more academic and less of a thinker.
Meanwhile painters had begun to unite the ex cellencies of the contending factions. Under Louis Philippe, Delaroche (1707-1856), a popu lar but weak painter of historical scenes, united romantic subjects and color with classic line, as did Horace Vernet, the battle painter, and Ary SchetTer. More classic in character were Flandrin, 'the religions painter of France,' Gleyre. and the Neo-Greeks, like Hanion...-Vubert, and Cd-r6me. in the earlier part of his career. The term Semi Classicists is applied to a group of painters under the Second Empire, who combine academic train ing. romantic color, and realistic treatment, like Cabanel, Bouguercau, Gi-rome, LefAre, and per haps Benner. Among the chief portrait painters are Bonnat, the realist, and Carol us-Duran, while Laurens (1838—), Benjamin Constant, and ftochegrosse treat historical subjects. Bandry (1828-86), the decorator of the New opera, is rather a follower of the Italians of the sixteenth century. In a class by himself stands the ideal istic Puns de Chavannes (1824-98), the great French decorative painter, whose art reminds rather of the early Florentine:.