OSNABRUCK, ts'na-brnk (formerly called Osnalmrg by English writers). An ancient town in the Province of Ilanover, Prussia, situated on the Hase, about :30 miles northeast of Spinster (Slap: Prussia, B 2). It consists of the old, ir regular town, surrounded by promenades laid out on the site of the ancient fortifications, and the new quarters regularly laid out and containing a number of handsome buildings. The Catholic ca thedral is a partly Romanesque and partly Trans itional building of the thirteenth century sur mounted by three towers. The Gothic Altirien kirehe dates mainly from the fifteenth century and is of architectural merit. Among other note w-orthy buildings is the Rathaus (fifteenth cen tury), where the preliminary negotiations for the Peace of Westphalia were carried on.
The educational institutions comprise two gym nasia (of which one, the Gymnasium Carolinum, was founded by Charlemagne), a seminary for priests, two teachers' seminaries, a theatre, and a valuable museum. Industrially Osnabriiek is among the most important towns of Hanover. It has extensive iron foundries, and manufactures various kinds of machinery, boilers, pipes, wire, nails, pianos, organs, rugs, cotton goods, paper, brick, tobacco, ete. In the vicinity are stone
quarries and coal mines. The trade is important in local manufactures and agricultural and ani mal products. Population, in 1890, 39,900; in 1900, 51,574, including over 15,000 Roman Catho lics.
Osnabriiek received mint, market, and custom privileges as early as 888, and was surrounded with walls in 1082. Although constituting a part of the Bishopric of Osnabrfick, founded by Charlemagne at the end of the eighth cen tury, it enjoyed practical independence, and be came a member of the Hanseatic League. In ac cordance with the provisions of the Peace of Westphalia, the Bishopric of Osnabruck was bold alternately by Catholics and Protestants until its secularization in 1803. In 1857 the Ro man Catholie bishopric was reestablished. Con sult: Slit ho ft'. KunRtficnkmiilcr ?rad .17tcriiimer ins Ilannorrrschcn, (Hanover. 1879) nabruckcr Geschichtsquclicn, edited by the His torischer Verein von Osnabruck (Osnabrfick, 1891 et seq.) ; NViirin, Osnabruck, seine (ks-chichte, etc. (ib., 1901).