PANNO'NIA. A province of the ancient Roman Empire, bounded on the north and east by the Danube, and on the west by the moun tains of Noricum, and on the south reaching a little way across the Save, and thus including part of modern Hungary, Slavonia, and parts of Bosnia, Croatia, Carniola, Styria, and Lower Austria. It received its name from the Pan nonians, a race of doubtful origin, who at first dwelt in the country between the Dalmatian mountains and the Save, in modern Bosnia, and afterwards more to the southeast in nesia. The Roman arms were first turned against them and their neighbors, the I apydes, by Augustus in B.C. 35, and after the conquest of Segestica or Siseia ( Sziszek) he subdued them. An insurrection took place in B.C. 12, which Tiberius crushed after a long struggle, and a more formidable one of the Dalmatians and Pannonians together in A.D. 6, which was suppressed by Tiberius and Germanieus, but not without a two years' strug gle. Fifteen legions had to be assembled against the PannonianA, mustered 200,000 warriors. the Pannonians settled in the more northern district a, which received their name, and of which the former inhabitants, the Celtic Boil, had been in great part destroyed in Caesar's time. The country was now formed into a Roman province, which was secured against the inroads of the Nlareomanni and Quadi by the Danube, and on its other frontiers had a line of fortresses. Military roads were constructed by
time conquerors, who also planted in the country many colonies and munieipia, and thus gave it a rough coating of civilization. The country was divided by Trajan, during the Dacian wars. into Upper (or western) and Lower (or eastern) Pan nonia, and under Galeritts and Constantine it un derwent other changes. Upper Pannonia was the scene of the Marcomannie war in the second cen tury. In the fifth century Pannonia was trans ferred from the Western to the Eastern Empire, and afterwards given up to the Huns. After At tila's death, in 453, the Ostrogoths obtained pos session of it. The Longobards under Alboin made themselves masters of it in 527, and relinquished it to the Avari upon commencing their expedition to Italy. Slavic tribes also settled in the south. Charlemagne brought it under his scep tre. In the reigns of his successors the Slays spread northward, and the country became a part of the great Moravian kingdom, till the Magyars or Hungarians took it in the end of the ninth century. In the time of the Romans the chief towns of Upper Pannonia were Carnuntum ( Pctronell) , Petovio ( Pettau ) , Siscia ( szek ), Emona (Laibach), Savaria (Stein and Anger), and Vindobona (Vienna) ; of Lower Pannonia, Aquincum (Alt-Ofcn, or Old Buda) and Sirtnium (.Mitrovic).