PARMA. The capital of the Province of Parma. Italy. situated on both sides of the river Parma, 12 miles south of the Po and 75 miles southeast of Milan (Slap: Italy, E 3). The town is circular in form. and is surrounded by walls and ditches flanked by bastions. The site of the former fortifications is now nearly a complete circle of promenades. The streets are straight and wide, and meet at right angles. The Roman Via Emilia, here called the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, crosses the city from east to west, dividing it into two nearly equal parts. It traverses the Piazza Grande, where the official palaces and the statues of Correggio and Gari baldi stand. The northwest corner of the town is laid out in a fine public park. Here is sit uated the Del Giardina Palace. now a military school, constructed by the Farnese, and contain ing frescoes by Carracei. Along the opposite side of the city extends the Stradone promenade.
Parma has notable churches. The cruel form cathedral (consecrated 1100 A.D.) is built in the Lombard-Romanesque style. In the octagonal dome is Correggio's "Assumption." The bap tistery is a splendid edifice of Veronese marble, completed in 1270. It is surmounted by several turrets, and the exterior is richly ornamented with tablets representing symbolic scenes. In the interior is a series of good reliefs. The Madonna della Steccata, a Renaissance church in the form of a Greek cross, contains paintings by Parmigiana The San Giovanni Evangelista is a fine Renaissance creation of eminent architects. It dates from 1510. 'rho dome has noteworthy frescoes by Correggio. %Om has also here a valued "Saint John the Evan gelist." The large but incomplete Palazzo della Pilot ta owes its origin to the Farnese. in it are Parma's valuable art collections. In the timseum of antiquities here arc meritorious bronze statuettes.
Its picture gallery contains good paintings by Giulio Romano. Canova's statue of Marie Louise, nolbein the Younger's "Erasmus," paintings and drawings by Parmigiano. and also famous ex• amides of Correggio. Of these last the "Madonna della Scodella" is the most prominent. Other ex cellent works by Correggio are a "Descent from the Cross," a "Martyrdom of Saints Pla eidus and Flacia," and two Aladoimas. The public library 1I'alatinal in the a lithe: emitains over 300,1)00 volumes and about manuscripts, some of the latter of great interest and value. The Teatro l'arnese is also here, dating front lals, and latterly restored. In the Convent of San Paolo, now iised for a school, arc found masterful frescoes by corregglo. The university was founded in 1512. 1 ate faculties of jurisprudence, mathematic. and science. and medicine and surgery. In 1902 it had 42 inst rut-tors and W.: I paleontalogical collection and its African fauna. from the Italian colonies are noteworthy. Con nected with the university are a botanic garden, an observatory, and a pharniacentieal school. Among the other edneational institutions of Parma are an Episcopal ry. a lycu-ont, an agrieultural institute, an aeademy of line arts, and a school of ID The city is notable in art, history as the place of residence of Cot reggio and the birthplace of Parmigiano.
Parma has manufactures of musical instru ments, silks, woolens. linens, telt hats, leather, glass, and ironware. 'there is also a ray al tobacco fat-tory. The printing establishment founded by lialoni in 1766 is famous in Italy. The trade is chiefly in wine. grain, cattle, and cheese. In June is held a silk fair. Population (commune), in 1881, 45,21J; in 1901, 49.340.