PHYSICAL TRAINING ()IL. phyRicer/is. from Lat. physieus. from Gk. cpuo-arrk physikos, relating to nature, from cptIo-Ls, phy.sis. nature, from Ow., phyrin, to produce; connected with Lat. fin, 1 was, Skt. WO, to become. Ger. bin, AS. be7o, 1 am, Eng. be). _1 term in its larg est sense including (1) the training of muscles of the body for the acquiring as well as the pres ervation of health; (2) the employment of the mind as a relaxation from work; (3) the physical exereise of the body as a whole as a means to health and happiness. This does not include training aimed at the enlargement of the muscles alone, which often results in ill health, since most great athletes use up their vitality early in life and die in middle ago: nor does it include, except indirectly, the cultivation of certain in herited weak parts of the body, since here again direct medical advice is the only safe plan to follow.
First of all, certain laws may be laid down.
(1) The best exercise is always attained by playing a physical game, as contrasted with gym nasium apparatus. shice the game not only all the functions of the body which ot herise are checked by the sedentary life of most human beings, but it also occupies the mind and thoughts, which, being thus turned away from the cares of life, are restored and refreshed. (2) Such games and exercise should be practiced in the open air, as contrasted with the same prac ticed within doors, since the air of outdoors is fresher, more stimulating. freer from dust and all substances which, taken into the lungs, do h;n•nt. (3) Such exercise should take place in the daytime as contrasted with the night. since again sunlight has direct- physical benefits that are lost when the sun has set. (4) Such exercise should lie taken regularly at the same time every day, since a little regular work once a day is better than a large amount once a week, or ir regularly.
A game played regularly out of doors in the daytime is therefore the ideal form of physical culture. Yet fel. a thousand reasons this best form may be impossible. Next best is a game outdoors at night, and after a game indoors in daytime. Again, if games are impossible,
there are mats• forms of exercise which can be carried on in the daytime out of doors, and those should be chosen which require the greatest mental attention. in order to rest the mind as as pos,ible. Next in order would come physical exercise. exclusive of games indoors, and in the daytime. and finally. least important of all. but still infinitely better than nothing, certain physical exercises indoors during the night time. It is manifest at the start that the great body of humanity is confined to this last, hut properly carried out it is itself sufficient to preserve health and often to bring back health to those who have lost it.
a.% MES. The hest exercise in the world is un questionably oh tained in the game of polo. The entire body is at work all the time; every muscle, every nerve, is used constantly; no part of the body is neglected. In addition to this no man can play the game and keep his mind on busi ness; for not only must all the brain he has be devoted coir•tantly to the play, but lie has under it %In MICA lwr personality—the pony—which re quires constant watehing and direction. the game is over the physical body is thoroughly exercised, the mind hint been employed to its un bounded relief. and the whole man, physically tired, is renovated as nothing else can renovate him. l'olo, however, is very expensive and there fore confined to the few. Next in order of im portance would come the game of football, which covers all that has been said of polo, except that there is no other intelligence than that of the individual himself to guide. .1s in polo, football exercises all parts of the body, occupies the mind, with its absorbing interest in organization. com bination—team play as it is ealled—and with the constant attention required to develop the hest results for the individual himself. .kgain, this game is limited to young men, both because of the time required to practice, and because middle age too often makes the human machine incapable of enduring the physical strain.