PHYS'IOG'NOMY (OP. physiiognomic, pTrisioncintic, Fr. physionomie, from Gk.Ovcrtoyvccala, physiognomia, Outywyptotcovia, physiogn45monia, art of judging by the features, fromcpuircoryvc4cop, phys iognamon, one who judges by the features, from Ittiats, physis, nature + -yru5cuw, gnomon, judge, from -yrypdfakcw, gignoskcin, to know; ultimately connected with Eng. know). In general, the form and expression of the visage or face, especially when regarded as indicative of character; spe cifically, an art or system of reading character from the face. This system was framed by Lava ter, and is related to that of phrenology as for mulated by Gall and Spurzheim; it Nras extended and expanded in America chiefly by S. R. Wells in connection with 0. S. Fowler, L. N. Fowler, and others. In its application the system in volved temperament as determined from com plexion, etc.; the general aspect of head and face, sometimes in comparison with those of animals whose traits the individuals were considered to imitate; the' form, size, and prominence of par ticular features, etc. The chief bases of the sys tem were assumed (1) localizations of functions in the brain, and (2) corresponding localizations in the external features. Later researches in cerebral and general anatomy and physiology have failed to establish most of the assumed lo calizations and correspondences, while modern students commonly regard facial forms and fea tures rather as hereditary ethnic characters than indices of individual disposition; so that the current art may be defined as character-reading from facial expression. A good many modern
students, among whom Cesare Lombroso may be regarded as the leader, distinguish between nor mal and abnormal types of physiognomy, and view the latter as indices of either degeneracy or reversion to lower ancestral types ; and some writers have sought to eombine' certain classes of abnormalities in a 'criminal type' for the guid ance of students, jurists, and statesmen. The recognized abnormalities include certain malfor mations of face and head, asymmetry of features sometimes analogous to that accompanying epi lepsy or paralysis, excess or deficiency of hair and beard, unusual pigmentation, and various stig mata, either congenital or of later development. The coiirdination of these abnormalities with con duct forms a considerable part of the foundation for criminology (q.v.) as defined by Lombroso. The general form and expression of the visage are among the ethnic traits recognized in defining races and peoples. The facial angle, i.e. the e gree of prognathism, is among the most useful measures both in comparative anatomy and in ethnology; the shape of the jaw, the conforma tion of the cheek-bones, the position of the ocular orbits, the number and character of the teeth, and the nature of the dermal appendages (hair, beard, brows, etc.) are also of primary impor tance as ethnic characters; while the superior ex pressiveness of the features of more advanced peoples is among the characteristics noted by the et hnologist.