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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 16

Polycarp
Polycarp (lat. Polycarpus, From Gk. Tio.karroc, Polykarpos) (c.69-155). Bishop Of Smyrna And One Of The Most Celebrated Early Christian Martyrs. Such Meagre Information As We Have About Hi-, Life Is Drawn Chiefly From Iremeus. Eusebins. And The Anonymous Martyrdom Of Polyearp. As A Youth Lie Came In Contact Ith The ...

Polyclitus
Pol'ycli'tus (lat.. From Gk. Ifni I'a? £17"‘). H Polykleitos). A Greek Sculptor In Bronze. E Is Called By Plato And Other Ancient Writers An A R Give, And Was Certainly The Representative Of That School In Greek Art. The Only Authority For His Birth At Sicyon Is Pliny. Who Seems ...

Polycrates
Polyc'rates (lat.. From Gk. Itoictipiirig., Polykrati's. A Tyrant If Samos, Horn In The Tirst Part Of The Sixth Century. Not Is Known Of Him Until About P.c. 515, When With The As Sistance Of His Brothers. Pantagmotns And Sy Bison. And A Small Band Of Eonspirators, Lie Seized The Government ...

Polygamy
Polygamy (from Gk. 71)? Vyapia, Plural Marriage, From Roi.i; Apoc, Polyga Mos, Much Married, From Polys, Much, Many -ycirc, Ganios, That Form Of Marriage And The Family In A Man Has Two Ur More Wives. Strictly Speaking, Polygamy, Meaning Plural Marriage, Includes Polyandry (more Than One Husband) As Well As ...

Polyglot Ml
Polyglot (ml. Polyglottus, From Gk. Run 724.171.0c, /jo /ygto T Tos, 570%15y2.4)gg0c, Polyglosso.s, Speaking Many Tongues, From 70.ic, Polys, Much, Many ± 7x6rra, Glotta, 7;+.6cca, Glossa, Tongue, Language). A Book Containing The Same Subject Matter In More Than One Language, Generally Ar Ranged For Convenience In Parallel Columns. Of Such ...

Polygnotiis
Pol'ygno'tiis I Lat.. From Gk. Ii0vpneros, A Oreek Painter Of The Second Quar Ter Of The Fifth Century B.c. He Was The Son Of Aglaophon. And A Native Of The Island Of Thasos, Where His Family Were Artists. He Seems To Have Come To Athens Shortly After The Persian Wars, ...

Polygon
Polygon I Lat. Polygonum. From Gk.-.702.v Po/ygon (fii, Polygon, Net. Sg. Of 7,-o7.i.)wroc, Polygonos, Having Many Angles, From Ro;ti.c, Polys, Much. Many + Yenta, Gonia, Angle). If The Two End-points Of A Broken Line Coincide, The Figure Ob Amazons, And Of The Lapith:r With The Centaurs, And The Descent Of ...

Polygonace1e
Pol'ygona'ce1e (neo-lat. Nom. Pl., From Lat. Polygon Um, From Gk. Voxeryovov, Knot-grass, Polygony, Nett. Sg. Of Pot Ygonos, Pro Lific. From Rox6s , Pot Ys. Much, Many + 76vor, Go»os, Seed), The Buceiviieat Family. A Nat Ural Order Of About 30 Genera And 750 Species Of Widely Distributed Dicotyledonous Herbs, ...

Polygonal Numbers
Polygonal Numbers. See Number. Polyhedron (from Ok. Hoxtledipos, Lnolyrrlros, Having Ninny Bases, From Roxin, Polys, Much, Many + Gspa, Hr(lra, Base). A Solid Whose Bounding Surface Consists Entirely Of Planes. The Polygons Which Bound It Are Called Its !dims; The Sides Of Those Polygons, Its Edges; And The Points Where ...

Polymorphism
Polymorphism (from Gk. Polys, Much, Many + Morphe, Form). The Differ Entiation Either Of One Animal Into Two Or More Incomplete Undetached Individuals (pseudindivid Uals) Or Zoiiids, As In The Siphonophores Or Phy Salia: Or That Of The Animal Into Two Separate Sexes, Or Of The Latter Into Castes, As ...

Polynesians
Polynesians. A Term Used Diversely By Various Writers. By Some It Is Employed As A Synonym Of Miilayo-polynesian (q.v.) And Made To Include All The So-called Brown Race Of The Re Gions Known As Malaysia, Melanesia, And Polynesia, Also Know N As The Malayan Race. F. Miiller (1s7.9) Made The ...

Polyphony
Polyphony (from Gk. Ronvocovia, Polypho Nic, Variety Of Sounds. From Romq5umos, Polypho Nos, Baying Many Sounds, From Roxtis, Po/gs, Much. Many + Ocov-if', Ph/tim', Sound, Voice). In Musical Composition, The Combination In Har Monious Progressions Of Two Or More' Parts, Each Of Which Has An Independent Melody Of Its Own. ...

Polytechnique
Polytechnique (ernie Polytrchnique). One Of The Most Famous Military Preparatory Institutions Of Europe. It Was Established By The National Convention As The Ecole Centralc Des Traraux Publics In 1794, And In 1795 Its Name Was Changed To Ecole Polytechnique. Although Originally Intended As A Preparatory School For All Branches Of ...

Polytheism
Polytheism ( From Gk. 702. 03e0f, 1301 Gthros, Relating To Many Gods, From :-roat;c, /julys, Much, Many + Of6c, Ther,s, God). The Belief In Many Gods, As Opposed To Monotheism, Or Atheism, Belief In One God Or In No God. The Most Primi Tive Peoples Scarcely Recognize Any God. But ...

Polyzoa
Pol'yzo'a (neo-lat. Nom. Pl., From Gk. Troi.oc, Polys, Much, Many + Cc,zop, Zoon, Animal), Or Moss Animals. Minute Marine Animals Usu Ally Forming Moss-like Or Coral-like Calcareous Or Ehitinous Masses Called 'corms,' Each Cell Con Taining A Worm-like Creature With The Digestive Tract Flexed, The Anus Situated Near The Mouth. ...

Pomegranate Of
Pomegranate (of. Pone Yranntr, From 31l. Pomum Granatum, Apple With Seeds, From Tat. Pomum, Apple, Pome, And Yrunatus, Having Seeds, From Granum, Seed, Grain), Punica Aralla Illm. A Thorny Shrub Or Small Tree Of The Natural Order Myrtacefe, Native Of Southwest Asia, Natu Ralized In Southern Europe, And Widelyeultivated During ...

Pomfrft
Pom'frft, Joux (1667-1702). An English Poet, Son Of Thomas Pomfret, Vicar Of Luton, In Berkshire. Lie Was Educated At Queen's College. Cambridge, And, Taking Orders In The Church Of England, Became Rector Of Alaulden, In Bedford Shire (1695), And Of 31illbrook, In The Same County (1702). Lie Published Poems On ...

Pompadour
Pompadour, Pitn'pa'dour', .teanne Antoi Nette Poisson, Marquise De (1721-64). A Mis Tress Of Louis Xv. Of France. She Was Burn In Paris, December 29, 1721, Of Obscure Parents, Hearing The Name Of Poisson. Lenormant De Tournehem, A Rich Farmer-general, Was Supposed To He Her Father, However. And He Saw That ...

Pompano
Pompano ( Sp. Pampano, Young Vine-ten Dril), Or Palometa. A Fish Of Southern Waters Representing A Section Of The Great `horse-mack Erel' Family Caraugida% And Of Admirable Qual Ity. The 'common' Pompano (toff-1111,m Us Caro Linus) Dwells Along The South Atlantic And Gulf Shores Of The United States And Southward, ...

Pompeii
Pompeii, Prun-prey,'.. An Ancient City Of Campania, Built At The Mouth Of The River Sarnns (sarno), Looking Out On The Ray Of Naples. It Stood Only A Few Miles From Mount Vesuvius. Be Tween Herculaneum And Stabile. It Was Founded As Early As The Sixth Century N.c. By Oscars, Who ...

Pompeius
Pompeius, Gn.r's Magnus, Commonly Known As Or Pompey The Great (b.c. 106-48). A Famous Roman General And States Man. He Was A Son Of Omens Pompeii's Strain). At The Early Age Of Seventeen He Be Gan To Learn The Military Art Under His Father By Service In The Field Against ...

Poncelet
Poncelet, P5ns'ite, Victor (1788 1867). A French Engineer And Mathematician. Born In Metz. From 1807 To 1810 He Attended The Ecole Polytechnique, Where He Studied Under Monge. In 181:2 He Entered The Army As Lieutenant Of Engineers, And Was Made Prisoner On The Retreat Of The French From Mos Cow. ...

Pond Snail
Pond-snail. A Snail Of The Pu]monate Family Limmeidle, Which Inhabit The Fresh Wa Ters Of Temperate Regions. All Are Vegetable Eaters And Seek Their Food Beneath The Water. They Lay Their Eggs In Clusters Surrounded By A Clear Gelatin-like Substance, And Attached To Plants And Other Objects Beneath The Water. ...

Poniatowski
Poniatowski. Pe,'ncit-teiv'skt.. The Name Of A Polish Family Of Italian Origin. Descended From The Family Of The Torelli. A Member Of This Family Settled In Poland, And Assumed The Name Of Poniatowski From His Wife's Estate Of Ponia Tow. The Most Notable Members Of The Family Were: Prince Stanislas Poniatowski ...

Pontiac
Pon'tiac (c.1720-69). A Famous Chief Of The Ottawa Indians And Leader Of The Confederate Tribes Of The Ohio Valley And Lake Region Against The English In 1763-65. He Was Born In What Is Now Northwestern Ohio, His Mother Being An Ojibwa. Ile Distinguished Himself In The French Service At An ...

Pontine Marshes
Pontine Marshes (lat. Pomptintr Attacks). A Low-lying District, Forming The Southern Part Of The Camp:1pm Di Roma (q.v.), And Extending In A Southeasterly Direction From Cisterna To The Sea At Terracina. Its Greatest Length Is About Thirty-one Miles, And Its Breadth From Five To Eight Miles. It Does Not Reach ...

Pontipex
Pontipex ( Lat., Probably From Palm, Bridge + Faccre, To Make). The Title Borne By The Members Of One Of The Four Great Priestly Colleges Among The Romans. The Other Three Were The Collegia Augur•urx ( See Auguries ) , Xv. , Rirorunt Sacris Faciandis, And Lh. Rirorum Cpulo Num. ...

Pontus
Pon'tus (lat., From Gk. 116vres, Pontos). The Ancient Name Of A District In The Northeast Of Asia Minor, Bordering On The Pontus Euxinus (whence Its Name), And Extending From The River Hillys (now Kizil Lrmak) In The West To The Frontiers Of Colchis And Armenia, A Short Dis Tance Beyond ...

Pony Express
Pony Express. The Name Given To A Mail Service Established Between Saint Joseph, Mo., And San Francisco, Cal., In 1860. At This Time There Were Three Transcontinental Mail Lines, But The Greater Part Of The Mail Between The East And The Far West Was Sent By Way Of Panama, In ...

Poodle
Poodle ( Ger. Pi/c1. From Ger. Wein, To Splash In Water; Connected With L(t'er, Puddeln, To Waddle. Eng. P4/1/e. Pudgy Person). A Breed Of Long-haired Dogs Now Kept Chiefly As Pets. The Poodle Has Long Been Known And Appreciated; His Quaintly Clipped And Shaven Body Is Found Depicted On Homan ...

Pooling
Pooling (from Pool, From Fr. Poule. Pool, Stakes, Lien. From Ml. Polio, Hen. From Lat. Put /us, Young Animal, Chicken). A Division Of Busi Ness Or Of The Proceeds Of Business Among Other Wise Competing Carriers Or Other Parties, Intended To Minimize The Effects Of Competition By Main Taining Rates. ...

Poona
Poona, P7i'ml. The Capital Of A District In Bombay, British India, On The River Nutha, Near Its Confluence With The 1\lula On An Almost Tree Less Plateau, About 74 Miles Southeast Of Born Bay (119 Miles By Rail) (map: India, B 5). Poona Is About 1700 Feet Above The Sea ...

Poor Rate
Poor Rate. The Name Of The Tax Raised In England For The Maintenanee Of The Public Poor Relief. The First Tax Levied For This Purpose Was In 1573. The Assessment And Collection Were In Charge Of The Overseers Of The Poor (q.v.). The Earlier Levies Seem To Have Been On ...

Poplar Of
Poplar (of. Poplier, Peuplier, Fr. Peuplier, From People, Poplar, From Lat. Populus, Poplar), Nith's. A Genus Of Trees, Forming With Wil Lows The Natural Order Salicace;p. The Species Number About 20, Chiefly Natives Of The Temperate And Cold Regions Of The Northern Hemisphere, Half Of Them Occurring In The United ...

Poppy As
Poppy (as. Popig, Papig, From Lat. Popover, Poppy), Papurrr. A Genus Of The Natural Order Papaveracem, Annual And Perennial Bristly-haired Herbs, Natives Mostly Of Warm Countries. The Leaves Are Alternate And Entire Or Lobed And Cut. The Poppy Has Been In Cultivation From Early Times. It Was Grown By The ...

Population Ih
Population (ih.. Populatio, From Popu Lure, To Populate, From Lat. Populus, People; Connected With Plenus, Full, And Ultimately With Eng. Full). The Number Of Living Human Beings. This Article Will Present The Leading Facts Re Garding The Number Of Human Beings And The Number In Various Classes; Reserving For The ...

Porcelain Of
Porcelain (of. Poreclaine, Poreellaine, Fr. Poreclaine, From It. Porcellana, Porcelain, Venus-shell, So Called Because The Highly Polished Surface Suggested That Of The Venus-shell, Whose Curved Upper Surface Resembled A Pig's Back, From Porcella, Diminutive Of Porco, Pig, From Lat. Porous, Swine, Hog, Pig: Connected With Lw'. Parszas, Ir. Ore, 011g. ...

Porch Of
Porch (of., Fr. Porche, From Lat. Portiems, Porch, Gallery, From Po•ta. Gate). An Open Lobby, Vestibule, Or Room, Affording Entrance To A Build Ing, And Usually Built As An Accessory To The Main Mass And Projecting From It. The Porch Of A Church May Be A Gabled Building, Small And ...

Porcupine Fish
Porcupine-fish. One Of A Family, Dio Dontidfc, Of The Order Plectognathi, Allied To The Globe-tishes, From Which They Differ Chiefly In The Stronger Armature Of The Skin, And In Having No Division In The Bony Plate Of Either Jaw. They Are Short And Broad In Form, And Are Covered Everywhere ...

Porcupine Of
Porcupine ( Of. Pore Cspin, It, Pore() Spina, From _ml. Porcos Spinosus, Porcupine, Spine-hog, From Lat. Porcus, Swine. Hog, Pig, And Spina, Spine, Thorn). A Large Forest-dwelling Rodent Of The Family Hystricidce. Characterized Prominently By An Armature Of Horny Spines (`porcupine Quills') Intermixed With Coarse Hairs. The Family Includes Two ...

Poreoise Of
Poreoise (of. Porpcis, Porpois, Pourpois, Dialectic Fr. Pourpeis, From Lat. Porcus, Swine, Hog, Pig ± Piscis, Fish; Ef., With Reversed Order Of Components, Port. Peixe Pored, Oft. Neste Porco, Porpoise). A Small Active Cetacean, Of The Fam Ily Delphinid:e, Having A Form Similar To The Dolphins. Hut The Muzzle Short, ...

Porphyrius
Porphyr'ius (lot., From Gk. Hoproptos, Porphyrios) (233-c.304 A.d.). One Of The Most Im Portant Neo-platonists And The Chief Disciple Of Plotinus. He Was Born At Batanea, In Syria. Where He Received His Early Education. His Original Name Was Malchus. But This Was Changed, According To Tradition, To Porphyrius (`wearer Of ...

Porson
Por'son, Pacumw (1759-1808). A Brilliant Greek Scholar, Born December 25, 1759, At East Ruston, Norfolk, England, Where His Father, A Worsted Weaver, Was Parish Clerk. The Curate Of The Parish, Mr. Hewett, Impressed By The Boy's Rare Abilities, Had Him Educated Along With His Own Sons. Parson Afterwards Found A ...

Port Arthur
Port Arthur ( Chin. Lii-shun. Ii7otr). A Town And Strongly Fortified Naval Station Near The Lao T'ich Shan Promontory Of The Peninsular Por Tion Of The Manchurian Province Of Shing-king Or Fung-cien Fu. Leased By China To Russia With Cer Tain Adjacent Territory For A Period Of 25 Years Under ...

Port Hudson
Port Hudson. A Small Village In Loui Siana, On The Eastern Bank Of The Mississippi River, About 133 Miles Above New Orleans, Lo Cated At The Outward Angle Of An Abrupt Bend Of The River. In 1862, During The Civil War, The Con Federates Constructed Formidable Batteries For A Distance ...

Port Huron
Port Huron. A City And The County Seat Of Saint Clair County, Mich., 60 Miles Northeast Of Detroit ; On Lake Huron, At The Head Of The Saint Clair River, And On The Pere Marquette, The Grand Trunk Western, And The Grand Trunk Railroads (map: Michigan, L 6). It Also ...

Port Royal Des Champs
Port-royal-des-champs, Pur Dft-shlix'. A Convent Of The Cistercian Or Ber Nardine Nuns, Near Versailles, Which Obtained Much Celebrity During The Seventeenth Century As A Centre Of •jansenism. It Was Founded By The Wife Of Mathieu De Montmorency In 1204 And Soon After Its Establishment Obtained From The Pope The Privilege ...

Port Townsend
Port Towns'end. A City And The County Seat Of Jefferson County, Wash., 35 Miles North By West Of Seattle, On Port Townsend Bay, At The Entrance To Puget Sound. It Has Steamship Con Nection With Alaska, San Francisco, And Various Ports Of The Orient (map: Washington, C I). The Port ...

Porter
Porter, Iioi;.vve An American Soldier And Diplomat, Son Of David Rittenhouse Porter And Grandson Of Andrew Porter. He Was Horn At Huntingdon, Pa.: Studied For A Year At The Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard, Then Entered West Point, Where He Graduated In 1860, And A Year Later Was Commissioned First Lieutenant ...

Porter_2
Porter, Noan (1811-92). An American Professor Of Philosophy And A President Of Yale University, Born In Farmington. Conn., Where His Father, Rev. Noah Porter, Was For More Than Fifty Years Minister Of The Congregational Church. After Graduating At. Yale In 1831. He Was For A Short Time Rector Of The ...

Portland
Portland. The Largest City And Commer Cial Metropolis Of Maine, And The County Seat Of Cumberland County, 108 Miles North By East Of Boston; On Casco Bay, And On The Maine Central, The Boston And Maine, And The Grand Trunk Railroads (map: Maine, C 8). The Town Is The Terminus ...

Portland_2
Portland, The Largest City In Oregon And The County Seat Of Multnomah County, And An Important Commercial And Industrial Centre. Situated On Both Sides Of The Willamette River, P.' Miles Above Its Confluence With The Columbia River And About 120 Miles From The Pacific, Port Land Is Distant 52 Miles ...

Portraiture
Portraiture. In The Fine Arts The Repre Sentation, By Means Of Painting, Sculpture, Or En Graving, Of The Appearance Of An Individual Or A Group Of Persons. As Regards Size Portraits May Be Busts, Half Figure, Three-quarter Or Full Length; As Regards The Position Of The Countenance, They Are Full ...

Portsmouth
Portsmouth, Ports'miith. A Seaport And The Chief Naval Arsenal Of Great Britain, Situated In Hampshire, On The Southwest Shore Of Portsea 74 Miles Southwest Of London (map: England. E 61. Portsmouth Has The Most Complete Fortifications In Britain. These Com Prise, On The Landward Side, The Outer Line Of The ...

Portsmouth_2
Portsmouth. A City And One Of The Coun Ty-seats Of Rockingham County, N. H.. 5s Mile's North-northeast Of Boston: On The Piscataqua River, About Three Miles From The Atlantic Ocean, And On The Boston And Maine Railroad (map: New Hampshire, L 9). It Is A Port Of Entry And The ...

Portsmouth_3
Portsmouth. A City And The Of Scioto County, O.. 100 Miles Cast-southeast Of Cincinnati And Equally Distant To The South From Columbus: At The Junction Of The Ohio And Scioto Rivers, And The Terminus Of The Ohio Canal, And On The Baltimore And Ohio Southwestern, The Norfolk And Western, And ...

Portsmouth_4
Portsmouth. A City And The County-seat Of Norfolk County, Va., On The Elizabeth River, Opposite Norfolk. With Which It Is Connected By Ferry (map: Virginia, H 5). The Two Cities, With Berkley Constituting In Reality A Single Munici Pality, Possess A Fine Harbor And Good Transpor Tation Facilities. The Seaboard ...

Portuguese Brazilian Literature
Portuguese - Brazilian Litera Ture. The Literature Of Brazil Has To Some Degree Followed The Literary Tendencies Of The Motherland In Europe,. As It Was Long The Cus Tom To Send Brazilian Youths Of Promise To Coim Bra For Their Training, The Intellectual Relations Between Portugal And Brazil Were Very ...

Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea, Gin'e. A Colony Of Portugal In Northwest Africa, Bounded On The North By Senegal, On The East And South By French Guinea, On The West By The At Lantic (map: Africa, C 3). The Boundary With French Guinea Was Established By Con Vention In 1886. Area, 14,265 Square ...

Portuguese Language
Portuguese Language. One Of The Romance Languages, Or Modern Descendants Of Latin. Spoken In Portugal, Brazil, The Spanish Province Of Galicia (with Archaic And Dialectal Elements), The Cape Verde Islands, Portuguese Guinea, And Other Portuguese Colonies. As In The Case Of The Sister Languages, Spanish, French, Italian, Etc., Portuguese Is ...

Portuguese Literature
Portuguese Literature. The Lit Erature Of The Most Westerly Of The Romance Lands, Portugal. Was One Of The Latest To Arrive At A Consciousness Of National Unity And In Dependence, And Therefore One Of The Latest To Begin To Achieve A Literary History. Further More, As A Result Of The ...

Portuguese Man Of War
Portuguese Man-of-war. The Popu Lar Name Of Certain Remarkable Siphonophores (q.v.) Of The Genus Physalia. The Pneumatophore Or Float Is An Oblong. Crested Bladder, Flattened On The Lower Side, From Which Are Freely Pendent The Various Individuals Of The Colony. The Most Notable Of These Are The Long Capturing Filaments, ...

Porus
Po'rus M Lat.. From Gk. Epos, Rt;ros)'f ?-me. 317). An Indian King, The Most Powerful Of Those Conquered By Alexander The Great (q.v.). His Kingdom Lay In The North Of India Between The Hydaspes And Acesines (the Modern Jhelam And Chenab), And He Was A Monarch Of Much Im Portance ...

Posen
Posen, N. A Province Of Prussia, Bound Ed By Pomerania And West Prussia On The North, Russian Poland On The East, Silesia On The South, And Brandenburg On The West (map: Prussia, G 2). Its Area Is 11.184 Square Miles. The Sur Face Is Mostly Flat. There Are Extensive Tracts ...

Posen_2
Posen (pol. Poznan). The Capital Of The Province Of The Same Name In The Eastern Part Of Prussia, Situated At The Confluence Of The Cybina With The Warte, 90 Miles North Of Breslau (map: Prussia, G 2). It Is A First-class Fortress And Has A Strong Garrison. Its Appear Ance ...

Position
Position (lat. Positio, From Ponere, To Place. From *po-, Down, Gk. Eur6, Apo, Skt. Apa, Off + Sincre. To Allow). In Music, A Term Hav Ing Reference To The Arrangement Of The Different Tones Of A Chord. A Chord Is Said To Be In Fundamental Position When Its Fundamental Tone ...

Positivism
Positivism ( From Of.. Fr. Positif, From Lat. Positirus, Settled By Arbitrary Appointment. From Porwre. To Place). A Term Invented By Auguste Comte (q.v.) To Designate His System Of Philosophy, Inasmuch As That System Purported To Exclude All Metaphysical Theorizing And To Confine Itself To 'positive' Scientific Knowledge Of Facts. ...

Possevino
Possevino, Prwsti-ve'da, Antonio (c.1534 1611). An Italian Jesuit And Papal Diplo Mat, Horn At Mantua. Lie Studied At Rome, Was Appointed Secretary To Ercole Gonzaga, Ire 1559 Entered The Jesuit Order, And Was Later Rector Of The Jesuit College At Avignon. In 1577 Be Was Despatched To Sweden For The ...

Post Office
Post-office. A Public Institution For The Reception And Delivery Of Letters. Newspapers, Books, And Such Other Matter As May By Law Of The State Be Intrusted To The Mails For Convey Ance. The Post-office Is Frequently Also Charged With Other Duties Than The Handling, Of Mail. Thus In The United ...

Post Office Insurance
Post-office Insurance. The System Of Post Office Insurance, First Established By The Eng Lish Government Through The Government An Nuities Act Of 1864, Like The System Of Postal Savings Banks, Was Primarily Intended For The Promotion Of Habits Of Thrift Among The Working People. For Many Years The Govern Ment ...

Postage Stamps
Postage Stamps (from Post, From Fr. Poste, From Mi. Poste, Station, Fixed Place On A Road, From Lat. Post Us, Posit Us, P.p. Of Ponere, To Place). Printed Labels Issued By Individuals, Cor Porations, Or Governments. Acting As Carriers Of Letters Or Packages. To Signify That The Charges Demanded By ...

Postal Savings Banks
Postal Savings Banks. The System Of Savings Banks Conducted By Various Govern Ments Through The Post-office Department. This Institution Has Become Increasingly Important Since It Was First Introduced In England In 1861, And To-day All The Principal Nations Of The World, Except Germany And The United States, Have Adopted It. ...

Poster
Poster. A Sign, Usually Pictorial, Intended To Be Affixed To A Wall Or Board To Convey Some Public Announcement. The Use Of Such Signs Is Probably As Old As Civilization Itself; But With The Printing-press Came In A Class Of Signs More Or Less Answering To The Specific Modern Use ...

Potassium
Potassium (neo-lat., From Potassa, Pot Ash, From Eng. Potash, From Pot + Ash ). A Metallic Chemical Clement First Isolated By Sir Hmnphry Davy In 1807. The Carbonates Of Potassium And Of Sodium, Undistinguished From Each Other, Were Called Alkali By The Alchemist Geber, And They Were Known As Fixed ...

Potato
Potato (from Sp. Potato, White Potato, Batata, Sweet Potato, From Haytian Batata, Sweet Potato). An Important Cultivated Plant, Raised In Temperate Climates For Its Esculeut Tubers. It Is Often Called Irish Potato Because Of Its General Cultivation And Use In Ireland. It Belongs To The Order Solanacex. O• Nightshade Family. ...

Potato Diseases
Potato Diseases. Until Comparatively Recent Ly The Potato Blight Or Rot Was Believed To Be All Caused By A Single Fungus. Two Distinct Forms Are Now Held Accountable, The Leaf Or Early Blight, And The Late Blight Or Rot. The Early Blight (ai Ternaria Soluni) Appears Upon The Leaves As ...

Potato Insects
Potato Insects. The Principal Enemy Of The Common Field Potato (solanum Tubcrosum) Of The United States Is The Famous 'potato Bug.' Or More Exactly. The Colorado Potato Beetle (doro Phora Dceemlincata). This Insect, Originally Con Fined To The- Rocky Mountain Region, Where It Fed Upon The Sand-bur (.8o/anum Rostratum), Readily ...

Potawatami
Pot'awat'ami (properly Potewatmik, Fire Makers, In Allusion To Their Traditional Mak Ing Of A Separate Council Fire For Themselves). A Prominent Algonquian Tribe Formerly Holding The Lower End Of Lake Michigan, Extending South Ward To The Wabash River And Westward Into Central Illinois. They Were Closely Related To The Ojibwa ...

Potemkin
Potem'kin, Russ. Pron. Pot-yam'kin, Gregor .alexandrovitch, Prince Of Taurida (1736-91). A Russian Politician, Born In The Government Of Smolensk. He Was Educated At Warsaw And Became An Ensign In The Imperial Horse Guards. He Won The Favor Of The Empress Catharine (q.v.), And In 1762 He Was Made An Officer ...

Potlatch
Potlatch (nootka Indian Potlatch, Paht Latsh, Gift). A Custom Of Ceremonial Gift Dis Tribution On A Large Scale, Prevalent Among The Kwakiutl, Chimsyan, And Other Tribes Of The Northwest Coast. The Custom Is The Greatest Of All Public Ceremonies Among These Tribes, And The Principal Actor Spends A Lifetime Of ...

Potsdam
Potsdam, Potedilm. The Capital Of A Dis Trict Of The Same Name, A Royal Residence And The Scat Of The Administration Of The Prussian Prov Ince Of Brandenburg, Situated On The Potsdamer Werder, An Island In The Havel, 16 Miles South West Of Berlin, With Which It Is Connected By ...

Pott
Pott, Arrust Friedrich 0802-87). A Dis Tinguished German Philologist. The Founder Of Modern Scientific Etymology. He Was Horn At Nettelrede, Hanover. November 14. 1802. And Was Educated In The Lyceum At Hanover, Studied Theology, Philology, And Natural Sciences At Ga Tingen (1821-251, Then Was Assistant At The Gymnasium In Celle ...

Pottery
Pottery (from Pot. As. Putt, Pot. From Ir. Pots, Plate, Welsh Pot. Bret. Pod, Pot; Connected With 0 Ir. 61, Drink, Opruss. Pout, Lat. Potarc, Colic Gk. Vcspeip. Ponrin, Skt. Pa. To Drink). Pottery, In The Common Use Of The Term, Is Any Kind Of Ceramic Ware Which Is Not ...

Poughkeepsie
Poughkeepsie, Po-kfp'sl. A City And The County-seat Of Dutehess County, N. Y., 74 Miles North Of New York City; On The East Bank Of The Hudson River, On The New York Central And Hudson River And Other Railroads, And Connected By Ferry With The West Shore Railroad, On The Opposite ...

Pound
Pound (variant Of Pond, From As. Ge-pyn Clan, To Shut Up, Impound). An Inclosure For The Temporary Confinement Of Stray Animals. Where Domestic Animals Stray Upon The Public High Ways, Or Upon The Land Of Individuals, Any Per Son Injured Thereby May Take Possession Of And `impound' Them, That Is ...

Poussin
Poussin, Nrcoras (c.i594-1065). A French Painter, The Originator Of The Classic And Academic Element In French Painting. Be Was Born At Villers, Near Les Andelys (normandy), Probably The Son Of A Gentleman Of Picardy, Who Had Fought Under Henry 1v. Placed With A Latin Master, He Preferred Design. And Having ...

Power Of
Power (of. Poroir, Poueir, Pocr, Fr. Pou Volt, It. Potcre, Power, From Potcre, For Lat. Posse, To Be Able). In The English And American Law Of Real Property, An Authority Vested In One Or Move Persons Enabling Them To Make Valid Conveyances Of Land, Irrespective Of Their Having Any Interest ...

Powers
Powers, Hirtam (1805-73). An American Sculptor. He Was Born July 29, 1805, On A Small Farm In Woodstock. Vt. As The Farm Proved Insufficient For Its Support, His Family Moved To Ohio, Where The Boy First Worked In A Clock Factory. Later He Was Employed For Seven Years To Model ...