SHERMAN, WILLIAM TECUMSEH ( IS20-9l ). A distinguished American soldier, born at Lan caster. Ohio, on Feb. 8, 1820. He graduated at West Point in 1840, and afterwards was sta tioned at several places in the South, during which time he devoted his spare moments to the study of law. Upon the outbreak of the war with Mexico he was sent around the Horn to Cali fornia, where he served as acting assistant ad jutant-general. Returning to the East in 1850, he was appointed captain in the Commissary Department, with headquarters first at Saint Louis and later at New Orleans. In Septem ber, 1853, he resigned from the army and en gaged in the banking business in San Fran cisco, where he remained until 1857. He then engaged in business for a brief period in New York in 1859 he began the practice of law in Kansas; in 1860 became superintendent of a military academy in Louisiana, and at the begin ning of the Civil War was president of a street railway company in Saint Louis. In Slay. 1861. he reentered the army as colonel of the Thir teenth Infantry. and a few weeks later was ap pointed brigadier-general. His first active service was in the first battle of Bull Run. where his brigade lost heavily. In August, 1861, he was detached from the Army of the Potomac and sent to take command in Kentucky under General Robert Anderson. Sherman succeeded him in full command on October 17th. It was at this time that he became the target for ridicule on account of his declaration that 200,000 men would be required to end the war in the West. The opinion was regarded as that of a crazy man and he was relieved of his command by General Buell in November and was ordered to report to General Halleck, then commanding the Department of Missouri. After brief service at Saint Louis he was in February, 1862. assigned to the Army of the Tennessee. and in April took a conspicuous part in the battle of Shiloh, having three horses shot under him and being himself severely wounded. Ile dis played such judgment and skill in this battle as to cause General Grant to say of him oilicially: -To his individual efforts 1 am indebted for the success of that battle." He was commissioned major-general of volunteers and rendered distin guished service in the operations against Corinth. In July he was sent by General Grant to take command at Memphis, which had just fallen into the hands of the Federal forces, and shortly thereafter he began his eampaign against Vicks burg. Inc trying to reach Vieksburg from the rear by the Yazoo River he was defeated and driven hack at Chickasaw Bayou, but later ren dered important service which contributed even tually to the capture of the city. In July. 1863, he was made a brigadier-general in the Regmlar Army. His command was now transferred to Tennessee, where he took an active part in the operations under General Grant which ended in the battles around Chattanooga (November), im mediately after which he forced Eongstreet to raise the siege of Knoxville. In January, 1864, he returned to Mississippi and soon thereafter made his famous raid across the State from Jaeltson to Meridian and back again, destroying the railroads. Confederate stores, and other prop
erty. and desolating the country along the line of march. When Grant was appointed Commander in-Chief of the armies of the United States he assigned Sherman to the eommand of the Mili tary Division of the Mississippi, embracing the Departments of the Ohio. the Tennessee. the Cumberland, and the Arkansas, with temporary headquarters at Nashville, and with instructions to undertake the capture of Atlanta.
In May, 1S64, his army. about 100.000 strong. set out from Chattanooga for the invasion of Georgia. The Confederates under Johnston were engaged with Sherman's army at Dalton, Resaea, Cassville, Dallas, and Kenesaw 'Mountain, but were compelled to retreat before his advance. Finally Atlanta was attacked, and after a siege of forty days, marked by several sharp battles, the city was evaeuated on September 1st. (-kn. John B. Hood, who had superseded General John ston in command, now moved back to Tennessee, leaving the way open for Sherman's advance through Georgia to the sea. In November Sher man set out for Savannah with his army stretched out at times for a length of 60 miles. The country along the line of march was almost devastated. By December 13th Ile had reached Savannah, which surrendered on Decemher 21st. Already on August 12 he had been appointed major general in the Regular Army and now received the thanks of Congress for his `triumphal march.' In February he resumed his march, turning, northward through South Carolina. On February 17. 1865, his army entered Columbia, and on the same day the Confederates evacu ated Charleston, which was oeenpied on the following day by the Federal forces. He then pushed northward into North Carolina, General Joseph E. Johnston attempting ineffectu ally to check his progress. Johnston's spirited attack at Bentonville on March 19th was re pulsed, and a few days later Sherman and Seim field effected a junction at Goldsboro. On April 21ith Sherman re( cited the surrender of General Johnston at Durham's Station. lint the terms of surrender were regarded by the Government as to() lenient and as ineluding matters other than mili tary. and were accordingly disapproved. From the close of the war until March. 1869, General S1111'1114111 was commander of the Military Division if the Mississippi. with headquarters at Saint Louis. Upon the appointment of t;rant as full general in July. 1866, Sherman was promoted to he lieutenant-general, and when Grant became President of the United States, March 4, HO, Sherman succeeded him as general. He retired from the army on full pay in February, 1884, and died in New York on February 14. 1891. llis Memoirs were published in 1875 (New York, 2 vols.). His correspondence with his brother. Senator Sherman, appeared in 1894 ( New York). A short biography has been written by General Manning F. Force (New York. 1899). ln 1903 a magnificent monument to the great commander, the work of Saint Gardens. was unveiled at the main entrance to Central Park, New- York City, and a fine equestrian statue was set up in Wash ington, D. C.