TOP'LADY, AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE ( 1740 78). A clergyman of the Church of England. Ile was born at Farnham, Surrey, and was edu cated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Dublin (B.A. 1760). He was ordained priest in 1764 and became rector of Broad Ilembury in 1768. In 1775 failing health necessitated his re moval to London, where he died of consumption, August 14, 1778. He was the great champion of Calvinism in the Church of England, and wrote much against the Methodists, with vigor of lan guage and argument, but often with undue as perity of style. He is best known as the au thor of the popular hymn "Rock of Ages, Cleft for Me" (1775). He edited for several years the Gospel Magazine. His controversial works, mostly in reply to Wesley, are numerous. The best was The Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism- of the Church of England (1774). His works were published with memoir (6 vols., 1794; 2d ed., 1825); there is another memoir
by W. Winters (London, 1872). Of his poetry the best edition is by D. Sedgwick (London, 1800).
ToPLER, tepler, AUGUST (I836—). A Ger man physicist. He was born in Brtihl, on the Rhine, and was educated in Berlin, and after various minor appointments became professor at the Polytechnic School in Riga in 1864, and in 1868 professor of physics in Gratz, where he built the Physical Institute. In 1876 he was called to the professorship of physics in the Polytechnic Institute in Dresden. He devised numerous forms of apparatus, especially in con nection with optical and electrical phenomena. The electrical machine that bears his name is perhaps the best known of his inventions. Be sides numerous papers he wrote Optische Studien mach der Alethode der Schlicrenbeobach tung (1865).
ToPLITZ, te'plIts. A town of Austria. See TEPLITZ.