TIBE'RIUS ( TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NERO CE SAR ) ( B.C. 42-A.D. 37). The second Emperor of Rome (A.D. 14-37). He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla (q.v.), and was adopted by Augustus (q.v.) when he married Livia in B.C. 38. after her compulsory divorce. He was carefully educated, and early manifested intellectual power and military skill. His first important conunand was the expedition sent in 13.C. 20 to restore Tigranes to the throne of Ar menia. A 11101*C noteworthy commission was given him in B.C. 15, when, in company with his younger brother Drusus (q.v.), he defeated the RhTtians. Two years later he was consul with P. Quin thins Varus. and in n.c. 11 he fought success fully against the Dalmatians and Pannonians. The death of Drusus in n.c. 9 recalled Tiberius to Germany. but in B.C. 7 he held the consul ship for the second time. The troubles which were to overshadow his life had, however, al ready begun. in B.C. II he had been forced by Augustus to divorce his wife, Vipsania Agrippina, whom he loved deeply, and to marry the Em peror's daughter Julia, the widow of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (q.v.). Tier conduct, and perhaps his own jealousy of the growing favor of Gains and Lucius Cesar. the two grandsons of Augustus, children of Julia and Agrippa. led him to retire, against the Emperor's will, to Rhodes in B.c. 6, the very year in which the tri bunician power was conferred upon him for five years. He remained in Rhodes seven years. and before his return Julia had been banished for life to the island of Pandataria. The death of Lucius Caesar in A.n. 2 and of Gains in 4 led Augustus to adopt Tiberius as his heir. From this time until the Emperor's death Tiberius was in command of the Roman armies, and cam paign followed campaign. In 4 he reduced Ger many from the Rhine to the Elbe, from 6 to 9 he waged war again in Dalmatia and Pannonia, and from 10 to 11 he held the Rhine against the Germans who had defeated Varus (q.v.). In 12 Ile was honored with a well-earned triumph.
When the death of Augustus occurred, August 19, 14, Tiberius was on his way to Il He was summoned home by his mother, and at once assumed control of the Fmpire. Despite his execution of Postumus Agrippa, the grandson of Augustus, his reign was at first beneficent. Grad
ually, however, a change took place in Tiberius. He minimized the power of the people, and trans ferred the election of magistrates from them to the senate. At the same time he watched with suspicion the increasing popularity of Germani cus Cxsar (q.v.), his nephew. In 19 Germanicus died, poisoned, if the reports current at the time may be believed, at the instigation of his uncle. About this time the evil genius of the reign of Tiberius, _Elias Sejanus (q.v.). gained his as cendency over the Emperor. Under his influence a system of espionage was instituted which doomed all who in any way opposed Tiberius. Freedom was abolished in Rome, the senate was demoralized, and the Emperor sank to the level of a cruel and ruthless tyra nt. In 23 Sejanns abetted the murder of the only son of Tiberius, Drusus Cmsar (q.v.). Three years later the Emperor left Rome with Sejanus, going first to Campania and in 27 to Capri, where he re mained till his death.
In 29 Livia Drusilla died, thus removing one of the last harriers to the complete degeneration of her son. Two years later Tiberius learned of the treachery and ambition of Sejanus, who was put to death, only to be replaced by Macro, as corrupt as his predecessor. In 37 Tiberius (lied, smothered, though already on his death-bed, by Macro, and was succeeded by Caligula (q.v.). The reign of Tiberius was beneficial to the Empire at large, and the provinces especially flourished under his sway. Only in Rome, and only where his personal interests were at stake, was he merciless.
The writings of Tiberius have been lost. His style is said to have been obscure, archaic, and affected. He wrote a brief autobiography, a lyric on the death of Lucius Caesar, and a number of Creek poems.
Consult: lime, Plea for the Emperor Tiberius (London, 1853) ; Pasch, Zur Kritik der Ge schichte des Kaisers Tiberius (Altenburg, 1866) ; Freytag, Tiberius and Tacitus (Berlin, 1870) ; Stahr, Tiberius' Lebo?, negierung, Charakter (2d ed., ib., 1873) ; Tuxen, Keiser Tiberius (Copenhagen, 189G) ; Baring-Gould, Tragedy of the Ccesars (London, 1892).