TSO TSUNG-T'ANG, tso' tsfmg't'-itng' (1812-85). A Chinese general and administrator. He was born at Hiang-yin, in Hunan, secured his second or 'master's' degree in 1832, and during the earlier years of the Taiping Rebellion served in Hunan and Iiu-peb. In 1861 he had the command of the army operating in Che kiang, and in the following year was also made Governor of that province. In 1863 he was also appointed Governor-General of the com bined provinces of Che-kiang and Fukien, and by October, 1S64, be had entirely re covered Chekiang and was rewarded with an earldom. When the rebellion ended in 1805, he was also in command of Kiang-si and Kwang tung. Appointed in 1866 Governor-General of Shensi and Kan-su, then in the hands of the Mo hammedan rebels, he first turned his attention to the Nien-fei insurgents, drove them from the neighborhood of Han-kow, entered Shensi and defeated them there in 1867, and utterly routed them near Tientsin in August, 1868. He re turned to Shensi, pacified that province in 1869, drove the rebels beyond the Great Wall, and cap tured So-chow in Kan-su in 1873. In 1375 he
was appointed Imperial commissioner for Tur kestan, and in April, 1876, he advanced with the main body of his army beyond the Great Wall, crossed the desert of Hami, and by October 10, 1877, had captured in succession LTrunnsi. Tihua, Manas, Pidjan, Turfan, and north of the Tian-Shan; and by January 2, 1878, Harashar, Aksu, Kashgar, Yarkand, Yengi-shar, and Kho tan—all in Eastern Turkestan, south of the Tian Shan—had been reconquered, and the campaign brought to a close. Tso was made a marquis and received many other honors. On his return to Peking in 1881 he beeame a member of the Tsung li Yarnell. and immediately succeeded in having all the Chinese students in the United States recalled. In the same year be was transferred to Nanking as Governor-General of Hunan and Hu-peh. whence in 1884, on the outbreak of French hostilities in connection with the Tong king affair, lie was ordered to Fu-chow to direct the military operations, and died there in the following year.