ARMIN'IUS (p.c. IS-c.20 A.D.). A chief of the Cherusci, a German tribe inhabiting parts of what is now Hanover and Brunswick. He was born in B.C. 18, and passed his early years at Rome. The period of Arminins's youth was a time of great peril for Germany. To secure the frontiers of the Empire against the attacks of the Teutonic tribes, the Romans had advanced into the more turbulent districts and erected a series of strong fortresses. Between n.c. 9 and A.D. 4, Drusus and Tiberius penetrated into the northwest of Germany as far as the Elbe, and reduced the various tribes to virtual subjection.. With so much prudence and caution. however, had Tiberius proceeded, that the Germans con tinued to all appearance on the best terms with the Romans, gradually adopted Ronan habits, and frequently took service in the Roman armies. Anninius and his brother Flavius enrolled them selves under the Roman standards, and as lead ers of Cheruscau auxiliaries not only obtained.
Roman citizenship and the rank of knighthood, but likewise acquired a knowledge of the Latin language, and an insight into the arts of war and policy, as practiced by the Romans. on re turning home. Arminius found the people op pressed by the Roman Viceroy, Quinctilius `Carus, and conceived the plan of delivering his country from the Romans. All the tribes and leaders as far as the Elbe were secretly united; Yarns was lulled into secnrity aml induced to scatter most of his forces. and with the remain ing portion, which was just on the point of leaving the territory of the Cherusci for the Rhine, to quit the highway for a shorter route across the country. He was thus lured into the
impassable districts of the Teutoburg Forest, between the towns of Detmold and Wiederbruck, near the sources of the Ems and the Weser. Arminius, who commanded the rear-guard of the Roman army, fell upon the legions unex pectedly, and annihilated the entire force, A.D. 9. When intelligence of the disaster reached Rome it excited the greatest consterna tion: but the Germans carried their victory no farther, and for a few years both parties re frained from hostilities. In A.D. 14, however. the Romans pressed once more into Germany. In two successive campaigns. A.D. 14 and A.D. 16, Germanicus reduced Arminius to great straits and took his wife captive, hut was recalled to Rome by the Emperor Tiberius, A.D. 17, and the results of his victories were lost. From this time no Roman army ever ventured to penetrate into the interior of Germany. After the expul sion of the Romans, internal feuds broke out with great violence among the Teutonic tribes. In the course of these Arminius was slain by his own relatives about A.D. 20. Tacitus says of him: "Arminius fought with alternate vicis situdes of fortune, and fell at last by the treach ery of his own relations; a man of warlike genius, and beyond all question the deliverer of Germany." A colossal statue of Arminius by Bandel was erected on a hill near the town of Detmold in 1875.
Consult: Wietersheim, Der Fcblzug des Ger Inanicus (Leipzig. 1850) ; Kemmer, Arminius (Leipzig, 1893) : and Fischer, ..trntin told die fldnier (11alle, 1893).