ARRAS, iteras' (from _ttrebatcR, Latin name of a ( ;allie tribe). A fortified town, capital of the Department of Pas-de-Calais. in France (Map: France, .1 1). and formerly capital of the county of Artois (q.v.). It is situated on the banks of the Scarpe, partly on an eminence, and partly on a plain, and consists of four divisions—the city, upper town, lower town, and citadel. It is a principal station on the French Northern Rail way, distant from Paris by this route 134 miles, and from Brussels 97 miles. The houses are of hewn stone, and in the lower town they are handsomely built and uniform; the streets are straight and wide, set off with several fine squares and many beautiful public buildings. Among the principal edifices are the Cathedral of Notre Dante, built in a composite Italian style, between 1755 and 1833; the residence of the prefect, the town-hall, the theatre, and the pub lic library. whieh contains 40,360 printed and 1231 manuscript books. Arras ranks as a forti fied town of the third class, its fortifications being, the first that were constructed by the eelebrated Vauban, according to his own system. It has been the seat of a bishop since A.D. 390, and two ecclesiastical councils have been held here—one in 1025, the other in 1490. The grain market of Arras is the most important in the north of France. Its principal manufactures are beet sugar, agricultural implements, hosiery, lace, pottery. and leather. Its trade, which is
considerable, is in grain and flour, oil, wine, and .lirandy. and the industrial products of the city. It appears from the writings of Jerome that Arras was remarkable for its woolen manufac tures in his time; and afterwards, during the Middle Ages, it was famed for its tapestry; in deed, the name of the town was transferred to this article of inanufm•ture, and arras Was the name given in England to any richly figured hangings. Population, in 1S90, 20,599. In 1482 Arras, with Artois, was ceded by the States of the Netherlands to Louis XI. of France; but the inhabitants having revolted, the King laid siege to the town, stormed it, and slew or expelled the people, whom be replaced by others brought from all parts of his dominions, ordering the city to be thenceforward called Franchise, to obliterate the very name of Arras. Soon afterwards (1493) it was ceded to Maximilian of Austria. and was retained by the Spanish branch of the house of Hapsburg, till 1640, when Louis XIII. of France took it after a long siege. By the Treaty of the Pyrenees it was finally ceded to France. Arras suffered much in the time of the first French Revolution, especially in :he year 1793. pierre and his brother were natives of the town.