ARSENAL Fr., Sp., Portug., arsenal, dock yard; It. arse»ale, (rzana, arzanale, arsenal, dockyard; cf. It. darsena, Sp. dorsena, Portug. taracena, dock. and Sp. ataraza»a(1), dock. all from Ar. dar il, workshop, factory, from (li•, house -F al, the + cinu`ah, art, mechanical industry). An establishment for the manufac ture, repair, and storage of :am, ships. or muni tions of war. In the United States the term is eommonly applied to an establishment designed for the manufacture and storage of arms and mu nitions of war for the land forces; there are sev eral naval arsenals, but these are merely store houses Jot- ammunition. In England the term has nearly the same signification. On the Conti nent of Europe the original meaning of the term is preserved, and, while there are many arsenals designed solely for the supply of the land forces, the great naval arsenals of Brest. Cherbourg, Toulon, Naples, Spezia, Venice. etc., are establish ments in which ships are built, repaired, and fit ted out, and in which equipments and naval stores are manufactured. The manufaeture of guns is now generally carried on in gun-factories and small-arms factories (see ORDNANCE). Some of the non-explosive parts of ammunition are manu factured at the general arsenals, but the work of preparing eX ph)s I yes, and of filling cartridges and explosive shells, is commonly done at special arsenals or establishments at safe distances from centres of industry and population; and large quantities of ammunithm are no longer stored in arsenals chiefly devoted to general military or naval industries. In the United States and in England the term nary yard (q.v.) corresponds almost exactly to that of naval arsenal on the Continent, the same class of work being carried on in each A very large proportion of the :mini Lions of war are now' made in private works; and this, together with the desirability of spe cializing manufactures, has led to a reduction of the scope of work carried on in arsenals.
The first regular manufacture of war materials in the United States was in 1776, when gunpow de• was made for the Continental forces; and in 1777 Springfield was chosen by General Wash ington as a 44:Rabic place for an arsenal. The manufacture of small arms commenced there in 1787, and has since continued. Harper's Ferry Arsenal dates from 1795, from which time other arsenals were gradually built, until the list of arsenals, armories, and ordnance depots under the control of the United States War Depart ment in I901 comprised the following es tablishments: Allegheny Arsenal, Pittsburg, Pa.: Augusta Arsenal, Augusta, Ga.; Benicia Arsenal. Benicia, Cal.; Columbia Arsenal, Co lumbia, Tenn.: Fort Monroe Arsenal. Fort Mon roe, Va.: Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa.; Indianapolis Arsenal, Indianapolis, Ind.; Ken nebec Arsenal, Augusta, Maine; New York Arsenal. Governor's Island, New York City; Rock Island Arsenal. Rock Island. Ill.; Saint Louis Powder Depot, Jefferson Barracks. Mo.; Sandy Hook Proving Ground, Sandy Ilook, N. J.; San Antonio Arsenal, San Antonio, Tex.; Spring field Armory, Springfield, Mass.; United States Powder Depot, Dover, N. J.; Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, Mass.; Watervliet Arsenal, Water vliet, N. Y.