ATAHUALPA, ( ? -1533). Inca of Peru. He was the favorite son of Huayna Capac, who upon his death-bed made Atahualpa Icing of Quito, while Huascar. his eldest son, re ceived Peru (1525). In the spring of 1530, Ata hualpa. incensed at Huascar's demand for hom age, declared war against him, and completely defeated Iduasear on the plains of Quipaypan, in the neighborhod of Cuzco, the native Peruvian capital, in 1532, a few months before the arrival of the Spaniards. Huascar was taken prisoner and confined in the strong fortress of Xauxa. Then followed, according to Garcilasso de In Vega, a series of atrocious massacres of all the royal family of the Incas. The extent of these massacres was undoubtedly grossly exaggerated by the surviving relatives of the victims, from whom Gareilasso derived his information; but there seems to be no sufficient reason for doubt ing that Atahualpa killed all whom he had reason to fear as future rivals. In the meantime the Spaniards had disembarked at Tumbez, and after a perilous march through the unknown country, Pizarro, at the head of his 200 cavaliers, approached the victorious camp of Atahualpa, where he found some 50.000 men assembled. By a stratagem Pizarro obtained possession of the person of the king. Atahualpa was treated with
a great show of kindness at first, and more espe cially when he offered, as a ransom, to fill the room in which he stood with gold as high as he could reach. When Atahualpa's brother, Huns car, who was still a prisoner, heard of this he offered still more advantageous terms for him self. To prevent this Atahualpa had him se cretly assassinated. The golden treasure which was to constitute the ranzoin of Atahualpa now began to pour in. and at length Atahualpa demanded his freedom. This Pizzaro refused to grant, and accused Atahualpa of plotting against him. Atahualpa was placed on trial and formally condemned to death upon evidence furnished by an interpreter, who was desirous of possessing one of the wives of the King. lie was threatened with burning at the stake as a here tic, but as he submitted to baptism according to the rites of the Church. he was garroted. August 49, 1533. The principal authority is Garcilasso de la d'ega's Royal Cormuenlarfes of the translated by C'. P. Markhaurt for the Hakluyt society (London, 1369-31). Gat•cilasso'a mother was of the Inca blood, or aeco•ding to more prob able authority one of the royal concubines.