ATLAS. A mountain system of northern Africa, extending in a southwest and northeast direction from the western end of Morocco to the eastern coast of Tunis. in the main parallel with the coast of the Atlantic and the Medi terranean (Map: Africa, D 1). It is generally divided into two parts, the Moroccan and the Algerian Atlas. The former comprises three chains, the Great Atlas in the middle, the Little Atlas on the coast, and the Anti Atlas south of the Great Atlas. The Great Atlas contains the highest summits of the en tire system, as the Jebel Ayashi (14,600 feet) and Tamjurt (14,500 feet.) The Anti-Atlas is less elevated, and shorter than the main chain. The Little Atlas begins in about longi tude 7° W., and finally joins the coast ridge of the Rif. In the Algerian Atlas only two chains are distinguished, separated by an ele vated plateau interspersed with numerous saline marshes, called Shotts. The northern chain, Tell Atlas, or Little Atlas, is cut up by coast streams and deep valleys into several separate groups. Its highest summits are more
than ;ono feet. The southern range. or Great Atlas, is very wide, and sends off numerous spurs into the Desert. It reaches in its highest peak, Shelia, an altitude of 7611 feet. In Tunis the Atlas system spreads out into a number of separate mountains of inferior altitude. The rocks composing the Atlas system comprise igneous and sedimentary rocks, which belong chiefly to the Archaean and Paleozoic periods. Jurassic, as well as more recent Tertiary forma tions, are also much in evidence. Copper, iron, salt, and several kinds of beautiful marble, occur in the Atlas. Some of the summits are under snow for the larger part of the year, but even the highest peaks are usually without a snow cover in summer. Consult: P. Schnell, tlas mammal?? (Paris. 189S) : T. Fischer, "Lieber meine Reise ins marokkanischen Atlas," in Zritschrift der Gessellse-haft f ar Erdkunde, Vol. XXVI. (Berlin, 1899).