WARTBURG. A castle near Eisenach in Saxe-Weimar, Connally, situated on a hill 5(15 feet above the town. (See EusEsAcit.) It was begun about 1070 and till the year 1247 it. was the residence of the Landgraves of Thuringia. attaining its greatest splendor under Hermann 1. (1190-1217). who was a noted patron of the arts. The castle is the oeeasional residence of the Grand-Duke of Saxe-Weimar. The restoration of the castle wcAs hoglin in 1847 after designs by Mize'', who reproduced with great faithfulness the original plan of the structure. The llofburg, by means of mural paintings and antique fur nishings. has lean made us near a duplicate as possible to what must have been its appearance at its prime in the twelfth century. The Vor burg. in the same manner, has been refitted in the style of the early sixteenth century, when Luther passed nearly a year there (flay 4. 1521. March (i. 1522), at work on hi, translation of the Bode, The Siillger•aaI in the 1Iofburg is noted as the scene of the legendary Wartburg Krieg or San gerkrieg of 1207, in which the most celebrated of German minstrels competed for supremacy. Walther von der \'ogelweide, Wolfram von Es chenbach, and Heinrich von Ofterdingen par ticipated in the musical tourney, and to the first of these fell the prize. This legend, dating from the early part of the thirteenth century, was blended in time with a \Vest German tradition regarding the contest between (he pious Wolfram and the magician Klingsor aided by the devil.
The story M its modified form became the subject of an early poem which attained wide curreney before the end of the thirteenth century. From this source Wagner, among others, drew part of his material for the libretto of Tanmaii.scr. October 18, 1817, about 500 students of the vari ous German universities assembled at the Wart burg, at the iustaUce of the .Jena ltursehensclaft (q.v.) to celebrate the third centennial of the beginning of the Reformation and the anniversary of the battle of Leipzig (1813). In reality the meeting was a protest on the part of the German youth against the policy of reaction which, after the Congress of Vienna, Metternich forced upon Germany. The black, red, and gold colors of the BurscheHsehaft first appeared then. The works of Kotzebue and other champions of reactions were cast into the flames, and on the follow ing day preparations were begun for extending the Burschenschaft throughout Germany. The German governments, alarmed by the spirit of revolution evinced in the proceedings at the Thartburgfest, entered upon a severe eourse of repression, placed the universities under police surveillance and prohibited membership in a Wursclenschaft. See GERMANY.