BON'IFACE. The name of nine Popes, most of whom are of no historic note. IIONIFACE i. ( Pope, 418-422). on account of prevailing party divisions, was opposed by a rival bishop, but was recognized by Honorius as proper successor. his letters are in Aligne. Patrol. Lat.,XX.—BONIFACE I I. ( Pope, 530-532). His letters are in Migne. LXV.—Boxinter III., who was Pope for only ten months in the year 607. was the first to whom the title of Universal Bishop of Christendom was conceded by the Greek Emperor (Phocas). --11oNIFAcE IV. ( Pope, 608-6151.-11oxiFAcr: V. (Pope, 619-625).—BoxwAcE VI. (Pope. 896).— BONTFACE VII. (Pope. 974. VIII. (Benedetto Gaetano. Pope, 1294-1303). Ile was horn at Anagni and was elected Pope on De cember 21, 1294. ills inauguration was distin guished by great pomp: the kings of 1Iung,aryand Sicily held the reins of his horse as he proceeded to the Lateran, and with their crowns on their bends. served him at table. In 1296 Bonifaee issued his bull Cleriris Laicas, forbidding the payment or collection of taxes on ecclesiastical property without the consent of the HolySee. He failed in his attempts to assert a feudal superior ity over Sicily, and to exercise his Papal authority in the disputes between France and England. Philip the Fair, of France, supported by the es tates and clergy, maintained the independence of the kingdom, disregarding many bulls and briefs, and even the sentence of excommunication to which the Pope proceeded. Philip at last, with the
aid of Italian enemies of Boniface, made him prisoner at Anagni, whither lie had fled; and al though he was liberated by the people of Anagni after two days' imprisonment, he died within about a month (October II, 1303),in consequence of having refused food during those two days, through fear of poison. He instituted the Roman Jubilee in the year 1300, and in 1302 issued the bull Unary! Sanctum, wherein he maintained the necessity of the submission of princes to the spiritual jurisdiction of the Roman pontiffs. For his life, consult: Luigi Tosti, 2d ed. (Milan, 1848. French trans. Paris. 1854) • W. Druncann (Konigsberg. IX. (Pietro To macelli, Pope, 1389-1404). He was a native of Naples, and succeeded Urban VI. as Pope at Rome, while Clement VII. was Pope at Avignon. His financial expedients contributed chiefly to in crease the many already existing abuses in the disposition of ecclesiastical offices. He acquired, after a struggle, a most absolute power in Rome, which he kept in awe by fortresses; but to secure himself against external enemies, particularly Louis of Anjou, whose claim to the crown of Naples lie had opposed, he was obliged to give away part of his territory in fiefs, as Ferrara to the house of Este.