BORODIN, biero'dCm, ALEXANDER PORFIRYE VICIL ( 1834-87). A Russian composer and chem ist. lie was born in Saint Petersburg, of a very ancient family. lie studied medicine and chemistry at the Medico - Surgical Academy, practiced medicine for a while. and. being ap pointed to the chair of chemistry at his Alma .hater, went abroad to prepare for his duties. It is claimed that, during his studies in Paris, Beidelberg. and Italy, he had anticipated Wurtz in the discovery of aldol. In all, he wrote 21 articles and monographs of importance. During the Liberal movement of the sixties (see Rus .S1AN larEtt.vrettE), he espoused the cause of uni versity education for women in Russia, and from 1872 till his death gave gratuitous, instruction in chemistry at the Medical School for Women. opened by Professor Rudn•eff and Aline. Far nooskaya. Amid his arduous professional duties he found time for composition as a recreation only. Ilk musical studies had begun quite early. At nine he played on his piano the music per formed by regimental hands, and at thirteen wrote a concerto for the flute. With a friend he played over all the symphonies of Beethoven. Mozart, and 'Haydn in arrangements for four hands. Besides, for chamber music, Borodin learned to play the 'cello, and his friend the violin. Later he joined the circle of Balakireff (q.v.), and took up music seriously. While abroad lie met Liszt, who later classed him as one of the great est musicians of the age, and made his works known in Western Europe. He wrote his first
symphony in 1862-67, and then in 1369 began the opera Prince Igor, on a libretto based on the epic Prince Igor's Band (q.v.), but soon left the work and utilized the composed parts for his second symphony (1860-76), the so-called 'heroic.' He then resumed work on the opera, which, however, was still unfinished at his death. It was orchestrated and finished by Minsky Korsakoff (q.v.) and Glazunoff (q.v.), and scored an enormous success at its first perform ance in November, 1890. He also wrote two string quartets besides a score of songs of won derful lyric depth. His In Central a.cia (1880), a 'musical picture' is one of the mainstays of the concert-room. Two movements of his third symphony were reconstructed by Glazounoff, partly from rough draughts and partly from memory. Though a member of the Balakireff circle, Borodin could not give up the rounded forms of the classical opera. Ilis talent was essentially melodic, and his cantilenas arc stamped with the breadth and power of a giant. The epic might and the Oriental coloring of his orchestration in In Central Asia hold a place among the most notable musical achievements in the Nineteenth Century. Consult Ilabets. Life and Works of a Russian Composer, Eng lish trans. by Rosa Newmarch (London. 1897).