BOTTLING AND BOTTLING MACHIN ERY. Bottling is praeticed wherever liquids or merehandise of any kind is placed in bottles for preservation or sale. The materials bottled on the largest scale are hears, wines, and liquors, mineral and other table waters, and such non alcoholic beverages as soda-water, ginger ale, and sarsaparilla. or all of the following pro cesses usually are involved: (1) Cleansing the bottles; (2) cleansing the corks; (3) filling, corking, labeiing, and tin-foiling or capping the bottles. In addition. some goods, such as beer, are steamed or pasteurized after the bottles are corked. In some bottling estaldishments the operations include the preparation of the ma terials bottled, such as carbonated waters; but in this article it is assumed that the various liquids are ready for bottling, and that machines are used throughout. Clean bottles are essential, particularly for the higher grades of goods. The slightest speck of dirt might seriously damage a bottle of champagne or mineral water, and fer mentable matter left in old bottles might ruin other beverages. New bottles are easily cleaned by washing and rinsing; but in many industries the bottles are used repeatedly, and must be cleaned as often as they are returned to the bot tler. Old corks are removed from the bodies of bottles by special apparatus. Before being washed bottles are soaked, where necessary, in tanks containing hot water, or sonic other cleans ing solution. Soaking-wheels are sometimes em ployed. These contain pockets in which the bot are laid horizontally, mouth outward. The weight of the bottles as they arc successively added causes the wheel to revolve slowly through the water in the tank. After having been soaked the interiors of the bottles are washed or scrubbed by means of brushes revolving at speeds as high as 2800 revolutions per minute. Both bristle and rubber brushes are used. though the former are less durable and leave bristles in the bottles. Some of the rubber brushes consist of elastic rubber stretched between two forked springs, and a more recent rubber brush has three prongs, which are spread by centrifugal action. A single steam-driven washer will .clean
GO to 75 dozen bottles per day. The bottles are then placed upside down on rinsers. the essential features of which are vertical tubes, closed at the top, except for small holes, through which jets of water under pressure are emitted. Each rinser includes 24, 36, or more spouts, mounted on hori zontal plates, with water-supply pipes beneath.
Filling-machines be operated by siphonage from open tanks or by air or has pressure from closed tanks. The latter is preferable, and some times essential, for carbonated beverages or any other liquids that might be injured by exposure. In the siphon-fillers the bottles are placed on the long leg of a siphon, the short leg of which is immersed in the filling-tank. The weight of the bottle tilts the siphon sufficiently to free the end of its short leg from the sloping side of the tank, thus permitting, the liquid to flow into the bottle. An automatic float maintains a uniform supply of liquid in the filling-tank. In the pres sure fillers the siphons and open reservoir give place to a system of piping, and the barrel m other closed receptacle containing the supply of liquid. Air or gas under pressure is admitted to the supply-barrel and forces the liquid into the bottles. The pipes to the latter are controlled by cocks or gates. Pressure fillers, like the rinsers, are also mounted so that they may he revolved. Waters highly charges] with ea rlamie• acid gas. like seltzer in siphons, present a differ ent problem in filling. They may supply their OW11 pressure, wholly or in part, and special pre cautions may be to prevent injury to the operators from bursting bottles. Siphon bottles are extra strong, and are tested in ad vance of use. In addition, the bottles are placed in strong iron cages or traps while living filled, and the workmen wear masks, gloves,sleeves,and aprons of rubber as a protection against flying glass from bursting bottle's. Siphon bottles are filled upside down, through the siphons. Com posite beverages may be mixed during the bot tling process. Thus the syrup for flavored soda water is admitted to the bottle from one recep tacle and the carbonated water added from the pressure-tank.