BREWING. The first operation in brewing is to crush, or technically to `bruise,' the malted grain by passing it between iron rollers, the ground product from which is termed 'grist.' Ihe grist is then mixed mechanically with hot water until it has about the consistency of ordinary porridge, and is then run into the malt•tubs, where the temperature is raised to about 170° F. Often the mash-tubs are provided with mechanical mixers for agitating the mixed grist and water which is now called the 'mash.' It is at this point in the process that adulterants are added if they are used. After standing in the mash tub from two to three hours the liquor is drained off from the bottom, hot water being slowly and evenly run over the top of the mash thoroughly to wash or purge the grist. from the liquor, which is now called 'wort.' fhe wort is allowed to stand for a brief time to clarify, and is then drawn otr into copper boilers where it is boiled with hops. From one to four bushels of malt and from one to five pounds of hops are used fur a barrel of beer. After being boiled for about two hours in the copper boilers, the wort is drawn off and cooled quickly by passing it through vessels containing coils of pipe in which cold water circulates, or by some other means for rapid cooling, and then run into the vats where fermentation takes place. (See FERMENTATION.)
Fermentation is started by adding about one gallon of liquid yeast to one hundred gallons of wort, the yeast used always being some which has been reserved from a previous brewing of the same kind of beer. Fermentation is allowed to progress for from six to eight days. It is com paratively slow at first and then rapidly in creases as the wort commences to 'work' until the temperature has risen considerably; large quantities of carbonic-acid gas are thrown off and the surface of the wort is covered with a thick layer of scum. The next process is to run the fermented liquor into other vats, known as eleansing-vats, which are usually provided with some means for cooling their contents, where a mild process of fermentation occurs, which throws off the remnants of the yeast in the shape of scum. The liquor is then drawn off into casks where it is stored, for a greater or less length of time and under different conditions of tempera ture, to mature. The time required and con ditions provided for maturing several of the more common varieties of beer are different in their precise natures and arc discussed under BEER.