The cream is ripened with the aid of the starter mentioned, by keeping it at a constant temperature (tW to 70' F.) until the proper amount of acid has developed. the time required depending upon the number of germs present and upon the temperature. It is then ready for (-burning. In this process the cream is agitated in a Omni (q.v.) to cause the particles of butter fat to unite into masses so that they can lie separated from the buttermilk. This is ac complished at a temperature of from 50° to 05° V., the larger fat-globules congealing and uniting first, and the smaller ones adhering to these as they come in contact with them. Finally the whole holy of fat may be brought together in a practically solid mass and the buttermilk drained off. After washing, the butter is worked by hand or by machine (sec BUTTER-WORKER) to remove the buttermilk and washings more completely. is salted to snit the taste. and than is either packed in tubs or boxes, or made into prints.
Various faders affect the quality of butter aside from the ea re in making. these are the food of the cows, the conditions under which they are kept, the stage of lactation of the cows, the handling of the milk and cream to avoid ab sorbing odors or becoming tainted, etc. The per
fection of the separator and other dairy machin ery has led to material improvement in the quality of American butter, and has made it possible to make good butter in almost all parts of the United States. Scrupulous cleanliness and close attention to every detail, from the produc tion of the milk to the final of the finished product. are prime requisites to suc cess. Since the introduction of the creamery system the amount of butter made ou farms has greatly decreased, but there is still much more butter made on farms than in creameries, al though creamery butter controls all the large markets. See, also, CREAmERIEs and DAIRYING. For more detailed accounts of the processes of butte•-making, the reader is referred to B. II. Wing, Milk and Its Products (New York, 1809) ; "Butter-Slaking on the Farm," United States Deportment of _1yr/culture, Farmers' Bulletin, No. .57 (Washington, lS99) ; and Handbook of Experiment Station Work, also issued by the United States Department of Agriculture.