BILDERDIJK, WILLEM (1755 '831). A Dutch poet, philologist, and philoso pher. He was born in Amsterdam, September 7, 1755, studied law in Leyden, and then prac ticed it at The Hague. In 1795 he was exiled as an anti-I:evolutionist. and went to London and Brunswick, after a discreditable love affair with Katherina Schweikhardt. redeemed later (1802) by marriage. Katherina was herself author of a narrative poem Rodrigo the Goth, and of graceful Poems for Children. On Bilder dijk's return to Holland (1800) King Louis made him librarian and patronized him in vari ous ways, but he was rather overweening and ungrateful, and at last. refusing to live in Am sterdam, went to 1.eyden (1817), where he lec tured on history till 1827. Bilderdijk's industry was indefatigable. While in Germany he trans lated ossian and Wrote Country Life and Patri otic Lore for Orange. After his return he wrote The Disease of Genius, Leyden's Rattle, several dramas, and his poetic masterpiece. The Destruc tion of the Pirst World. His entire production approaches 100 volumes. Ills poetry had no deep sentiment, and never caught the in spiration. In polities he stood. in later years, almost alone as an tilt ra-con servat ive. Iris greatness lies in a mastery of language that no Dutch poet since Huygens had approached. Bil d•rdijk's Works are collected in 15 vols. (185° 59). Consult Goter, Bilderdijk (Amsterdam, 1871).
BILE (Lat. bilis, bile, anger). A fluid se creted by the liver. It is golden-red in man, green in herbivorous, brownish-yellow in car nivo•ous animals. The primary cells of the liver (the hepatic cells) separate the bile from the blood of the portal vein, and discharge it into small (lucts. W11 jell unite to form larger ones,
and eventually the right and left hepatic ducts. The latter unite to form the common hepatic duct. which is soon joined by that of the gall bladder (the cystic duct). This junction forms the common bile-duct, which pierces the second part of the duodenum, and, running obliquely in its walls for a short distance, opens on its mucous surface. Between twenty and fifty ounces of bile are secreted daily, principally within an hour after eating. and to extent during the intervals of digestion. Some bile remains stored in the gallbladder, where it be comes viscid and of darker color. If it becomes solidified. gall-stones are the result, causing great paM as they pass through the gall-duct. Bile passes into the intestine and assists in the diges tion of fats, stimulates the peristaltic motion of the intestine, and disinfects the contents of the large intestine. If the escape of the bile into the intestine be prevented by swelling of the part by the duodenum where the common bile duet empties, the bile is carried by the blood into various parts of the body, causing jaundice (q.v.). Rile is composed of water, fat, resinoid acids tglyeocholic and tauroeholie), mucus, various salts, and soda. Its specific gravity is 1.026. It has a bitter taste and a peculiar strong odor. The bile of salt-water fish contains potash, while that of land and fresh-water animals contains soda. See CALCULUS; DIGESTION; JAUNDICE; and LIVER.