CALA'BRIA (Gk. KaXaflpia, Kalabria). The southernmost peninsula of Italy, having the Ionian Sea and the Gulf of Taranto on the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west (Map: Italy. 1, SI. Its area is 5519 square miles. The sur face is very mountainous, the peninsula being traversed through its entire length by the Ap ennine Mountains. Owing to its elevated sur face, Calabria has a moderate and healthful climate. The flora is extremely rich and varied. The mountain slopes are covered with extensive forests of pine, oak, beech. and numerous other trees, interspersed with vineyards and olive gar dens. Grain, rice. southern fruit. hemp, and flax are raised and exported in considerable quantities, and the raising of domestic animals is extensively engaged in by the inhabitants. Of mineral products. Calabria yields marble, alabaster, gypsum, salt, and some copper. The province is purely agricultural, the manufactur ing industries being only slightly represented.
There are very few large towns, and the railway lines run chiefly along the coast. For adminis trative purposes, Calabria is divided into the three provinces of Catanzaro. Cosenza, and Reg gio di Calabria, with a total population of I.:366,982 in 1900. The Calabrians are mostly plain folk, quite superstitious, and generally ig norant.
In Roman times the name Calabria was given to the southeastern peninsula of Italy. nearly corresponding to the modern Province of Lecee, no portion of which is included in modern Cala bria, which answers to the ancient Bruttimn. The name Calabria, as applied to the district now known by that name, appears to have orig inated with the Byzantine,: some time prior to the conquest of the country by the Normans. Before the unification of Italy Calabria consti tuted a province of the Kingdom of the Two sicilies.