CAUCASIAN, ka-kiiishan, or CAUCASIC, ka-kb.fsik. RACE, THE. The name applied by Blumenhach (1795) to the white division of mankind, as distinguished from the yellow. the brown. and the black. '11'h:ether these divisions be called species, subspecies, varieties, or races, they exist and have separate names. The ob jection is made to the word that it is not suffi ciently connotive. because the peoples of the Caucasus do not fairly represent, the grandest. division of humanity. But the term is fixed in literature. and will doubtless remain. An other controversy is waged over the original area of development and dispersion of the Cau casian race. Within a quarter of a century opinions have shifted from southern Asia to northern Africa. Keane says that the Caucasie progenitor originated in Africa, north of the Sudan, and quotes Sergi as saying that Africa is the cradle land whence this Caneasie family spread northward to Europe, where it still per sists, and eastward to western Asia. The whole of northern Africa. connected by land with Europe in the Quaternary epoch, formed part of the geographical area of the ancient white race. The last word has not been said on this point. The cradle land of the human species may have been in southeastern Asia. In that event. new difficulties with reference to the formation of the great subspecies arise.
Various classifications of the members of the Caneasie race have been made. Huxley (1870) made two separate races of whites—the Nan thochroid of northern Europe, and the Melano fug contrast to the northern part. It is occupied chiefly by lines of mountains running parallel with the great central range. The river Kur,
chroid of southern Europe, northern Africa, and Asia. A much later tabulation is that of Deni ker, litre given: In this table the Littoral European (called also Atlanto-.Nleditcrranean) corresponds with the Iberian of English writers: the Western European. or C&venole. is the Celtic, or Alpine, of authors; the Adriatic type is the tall, brachy cephalic population of the northwest Ilalkan Peninsula; Northern European corresponds with Teutonic, or Nordic. and Eastern European with White Russian, or Lithuanian.
Compare this scheme with Keane's divisions of the Caueasie peoples: (1) Homo cut-opt/14s.— Scandinavians. North Germans, Dutch Flem ings, most English, Scotch, and Irish; Thrako Hellenes, some Kurds, most \Vest Persians, Afghans, Dards, and Siah-posh Kalirs; many Hindus. (2) Homo alpinus.—Alost French and Welsh, South Germans, Swiss, and Tyrolese; Russians, Poles. Czechs, Yngo-Slays: some Al banians and Rumanians: A rinenians. many Kurds. Tajiks (East Persians), Galchas, Indo nesians. (3) Homo mediterrancusis.—)(lost Iberi ans, Corsicans. Sards. Sicilians, Italians, Greeks, Berbers. and other Dandies: Arabs and other Semites; some Hindus; Dravidas, Todas, _linos.
The best modern works on the subject are: Keane, Ethnology (Cambridge. 1896) : id., Han: Post and Present (Cambridge. 1899) ; Races of Europe (New York, 1S99) ; Deniker, Races of Man (London, 1900) ; Sergi, Mediter ranean Race (London, 190]).