CEDAR (OF. ecdre, Lat. rellruR, from (7k.
kedros. cedar-tree ) . A name applied to several species of coniferous evergreen trees. as Well as to the wood of a number of trees in no way related to the conifers. The name properly belongs to the genus Cedrns. of which there are three species generally recognized-0411LN /MIMI I, the cedar of Lebanon: Cedru.c deotictra. the deo dar-tree of India; and redrus it/milieu. of the mountains of northern Africa. liy some bota nists the last two are considered as merely varie ties of the first-named species. All are ehar acterized by their fragrant. Iight-red. durable wood. The cedars; of Lebanon have been fatuous from early times. being frequently mentioned in sacred and profane writings. The original groves mentioned in the Bible become great ly reduced through various causes. and the largest grove now known contains only about 400 trees, some of which are evidently of great age. The trees are noted for the site of their trunks rather than for their height. They differ from most conifers in that their branebes are wide-spreading. The cones and leaves resemble those of the larch more than any other tree. ex cept that the leaves are persistent. The cedar of Lebanon was introduced into England in the Seventeenth Century, and a number of noble specimens are now growing in that country. (For detailed illustration, see Plate of ('ALA BASIL ) In the Ja•din des Plantes I if Paris may be seen a fine specimen planted by jussien in 1734. It is hardy in the l'uited States only in the South and in California. In its natural home the cedar of Lebanon is found at elevations of 11000 feet or less, hut it thrives best in sandy loam, where the roots can reach water. A white resin, called cedar-resin, is exuded by the. trunks, and was fornwrly employed in embalming. A sort of oil or turpentine was also prepared from it, but neither the oil nor the resin is much known now. The deodar, or god-tree, and the Cedrils lati licit resent] Ccdrus Libani in appearance.
and have similar uses. They are more abundant, and their timber is very valuable. The deotlar forms extensive forests in the Himalaya- at PIP" Nations of from 7000 to 10.000 feet. The trees often attain a height of 150 feet and a diameter of $ feet. The wood takes a high polish. and is in demand for eabinet-work. Ctli•ts f thinticu is most abundant in the Atlas :Nlonntains. and is used for the same purposes. Jiang other clams trees are given the name pedal-. The Si berian cedar is Pinus (:oa cedar, a spe cies of cypress: red cedar, species of Junipt•rus (see juNteEtt). etc.
The white cedar of the United States is uurty/puri.s thy6ides, a tree 30 to 90 feet high. growing in swampy situations from Maine to .Nlississipm. The trees are evergreen, with small. se-ale-like leaves. The wood is excecdinglv durable, especially when in emit act with mois ture. The tree resembles the arbor-vitte, which is also sometimes called white cedar. The yel low cedar of the Pacific Coast is rhanureyparis i:oothat•nsis. It is found front northern Cali to Alaska. The a beautiful light yellow, and takes a high polish, on which amount it is highly esteemed for finish ing lumber and cabinet - work. The Port Orford cedar (Chanoreupuris Lat•soniana) is quite simi lar, and is found in Oregon and California. 'I here are many horticultural varieties of these cedars in cultivation, that vary in their habit of growth and color of foliage. _kilning trees not allied to the conifers to which the name cedar is given are species of Cedrela, which furnish the wood from which •igar-boxes are so extent sively made. The Australian cedar is of the same genus. the specie- being cHl•ela toona or Ced•cra .1ustra/is. This is an important timber tree which is put to many uses It yields gum, a resin, and tanbark, in addition to timber. This or a similar species is found in India, The cedar wood of Guiana is from Protium altissimum, In Australia Melia composite is called white cedar.