CHARLES I. (1839—). King of Rumania. Ile was horn April 20, 1839, the second son of Prince Karl Anton of Hohenizollern-Sigmaringen. Ile served in the Prussian Army, and after the dethronement of Alexander John I Cuza) was elected Prince of Rumania, April 20, 1806, and arrived in the capital, Bucharest. in May. The country was in a wretched condition, the prey of rival factions and foreign intrigues. The new Prince showed tact and statesmanship in the work of reorganization. At the outbreak of the Russo Turkish War (q.v.), in 1877, the Rumanian army was mobilized. an alliance was concluded with Russia. and Prince Charles took the com mand in person. The army was kept in Ruma nian territory for some weeks, after the opening (,f the campaign, because of Austrian jealousy of military activity on the part of her Bal kan neighbors. Prince Charles took the field with his Rumanians, however, when an attack on Plevna had been opened. and rendered valu
able assistance in the hardest fighting of the war. A few weeks after the beginning of the war Rumania deelared her independence (May 21). In 1881 Rumania assmned the title of kingdom, and on May 22 Charles was crowned as King at Bucharest. Under him the internal de velopment of the country has gone actively for ward, education has advanced, and a safe course has been steered in the difficult polities of south eastern Europe. Charles married Princess Eliza. beth von \Vied (known by her pen-name Carmen Sylva), November 15, 1869. The succession. in ease of his dying ehildless, was settled upon his elder brother, Leopold. who renounced the claim in favor of his son, Ferdinand. Consult. Whit man. lirmin RC(' neCS of the If ing of I,' mama (London, 189)).