CHURCHILL. Lord RANDOLPH HENRY SPEN CER. usually called Lord RANDOLPH CHURCHILL (1849-951. An English Conservative statesman. The third son of the seventh Duke of Marl borough. he was born at Blenheim Palace. Feb ruary 13. 1S49. Ile was educated at Eton, and Merton College, Oxford. and entered Parliament in 1874 as member for Woodstock. The same year he married the brilliant Miss Jennie Jerome of New York, who. as a prominent member of the Primrose League. gave him valuable assistance throughout his political career. He was a qui escent member until 1880. when the Conservative defeat roused him to action as the leader of the Fourth Party—a small band of keen-minded Conservatives. He distinguished himself as a ready. unconventional debater, attracting par ticular attention by his audacious criticism of Gladstone's foreign and domestic policy. He became still more prominent as chairman of the Conservative Union (1SS4). and in 1SS5 un successfully attempted to defeat Mr. Bright in Birmingham. but was returned for South Pad dington. which was kept in reserve for him.
From .June. 1885. to January. 1556, lie was Sec retary of State for India. his period of office being marked by the annexation of Burma. For six months in ISS6 he was Chancellor of the Exchequer. but reigned, expressing the resolve "to sacrifice himself on the altar of thrift and economy." Thenceforward he incisively criti cised governmental expenditure. although always voting with his party. He was the exponent of Tory democracy. and had a considerable follow ing of young Conservatives, who looked upon him as Lord Beaconsfield's successor. "Con genital causes" suddenly occasioned a failing of power; and in 1892 he sought recuperation by travel and hunting in South Africa. sending interesting descriptions of his tour to the Daily Graphic, and publishing a volume entitled. Nen, Mines, and Animals in South Africa (1892). During his absence be was reelected. but he died January 24. 1:05. Consult Escott, Life of Lord Randolph Churchill (London. 1S95).