CASTELAR, EMILIO (1832-99).
A Spanish republican leader, born in Cadiz, Sep tember 8, 1832. Ile was the son of a business MOO, and at the death of his father was left in poverty. but managed to study at the University of Madrid. Ile then worked as a journalist and novelist until in 1854 a daring entrance into the field of political debate secured for him recogni tion as one of the most brilliant of Spanish ora tors. In 1850 he became professor of history in the University of Madrid, but lost the place in 1805, in consequence of an attack on the Queen in La 1)cinocraeia, a radical journal. The paper was suppressed in 1806, and Castetar was sen tenced to death for participation in the disturb ance of June in that year, but he escaped to Switzerland, and subsequently went to France. At the beginning 01 the Itevolution of 1868, he returned to Spain and resumed his professorship, and in 1809 was one of the few republicans returned to the Cortes. In that body lie advo cated the establishment of a republic, and . ously opposed the schemes of a regency. Under the republic proclaimed by theCortes after the 'ab dication of Amadeus 1. (q.v.) Castelar was made Minister of Foreign Affairs ( February II, 1873) ; but he resigned in June. On August 26 he was elected president of the Cortes, and on Septem ber 7 the Cortes chose him president of the Ex ecutive, investing him with extraordinary pow ers. His first act was to prorogue the Cortes and assume complete authority. He made ener getic but ineffectual efforts to suppress the Cal-I I:As. and sent the Minister of War to Cuba, in person, to protect Spanish interests in that When the Cortes reassembled, .January 2, 1S74, a vote of confidence in Castelar was defeated, and he at once resigned. Thereupon, Pavia, as captain-general of Madrid, forcibly dissolved the Cortes, and appointed a provisional government with Marshal Serrano at its head.
Soon after the pronuneiamiento in favor of Al fonso XII., in December, 1874, Castelar went to Switzerland, whence in March. 1875, lie sent back his resignation of the chair of history in the University of Madrid. Early in 1876 lie returned to Spain and was elected to the Cortes, of which he was a member until 1893. During the reign of Alfonso XII. Castelar vigorously defended the reforms of the Revolution of 1868, but after the birth of King Alfonso XIII. (1880, perceiving that revolutionary methods were illsuited to Spanish progress, he sought the realiza tion of the revolutionary programme through legal and pacific means. His active opposition to the State had changed to a philosophical republi canism, revolution in polities with him had given place to evolution, and in 18113 he admitted that the monarchy was the only form of government then possible in Spain. In that year, seeing that universal suffrage was firmly rei;stablished. he gave up politics for literary work. Ile was al ways, in fact, more of an orator than a man of action. He died in Mureia. May 25. 1899. Castelar was a prolific writer, like his political rival. Clinovas del Castillo. His published works include La eurAtinn del orient(' (1870); rlet drsrubrimiento (IP America (1892); La politique earopeenne (Paris, 1897-99); and sev eral volumes of essays, speeches, novels, and travels. Consult: Hannay, Don Emilio rash-far (New York, 1890), discriminating and interest ing; Madame ttattazzi, Une Emilio C«slclor, so vie, son (enure, son role historiryue (Paris, 1899), eulogistic but valuable chiefly for the extracts from Castelar's own letters; Araeo, Custclar, su silo y su mucrte (Madrid, 1900).