HISTORY. Cambridge originally included the present towns of Lexington. Arlington. and the Brighton district of Boston. It. was settled at Newtowne, in 1630, by Governor Winthrop and others. who intended it to be the chief place of the Colony. but found the peninsula of Shaw mut (Boston) better adapted for commerce and for defense against the Indians. Resettled in 1631, it received, in 1633. its first pastor and teacher. Rev. Thomas Hooker (q.v.) and Rev. Samuel .Stone. who removed with their eon gregation to Connecticut in 1636, largely ow ma to ecclesiastical differences. In 1637 the General Court ordered that the college it had previously decided to found be established at Newtowne, and in 1638 that Newtowne become Cambridge. In the same year the first class began it, studies, and the name Harvard College was given to the modest institution. (See HAR VARD, .Torts.) During the time Boston was held by the British Army (1775-761 Cambridge was occupied by the American Army, and Washing ton assumed command in 1775 under a large elm, which is still standing.. The city charter of in
corporation was granted in 18-16. Cambridge claim, to have enlisted the first company of volunteers for service on the Northern side at the outbreak of the Civil War. and during that con flict 14 furnished -1588 men to the Union army and navy. The city has been the home of many famous literary men, notably of Longfellow, Lowell, and Holmes.
Population. in 1790. 2111; in 1830, 6072; in 15.21,5; dn 1850. 52,669; in 1890, 70.028: in 1900, 91,886, including 30,500 persons of foreign birth and 3900 of negro descent.
Consult: Paige. History of Cambridge (Boston. 1877 ) : 11 u rd ( editor ) . History of Middlesex county (Philadelphia, 18901; and Powell, His toric Towns of Yew England (New York. 159S).