CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRAN cOIS I 1790.1832). French Egyptologist. Ile was born December 23. 1790, at Figeac, Depart ment of Lot. Ile is often palled ChampoIlion le Jenne. in distinction from his brother Chatnpol lion Figeoc, a professor at Grenoble, who edu cated him. In 18117 he went to Paris to pursue his various Oriental studies. and in 1816 was pointed professor of history at the lyceum of (;renoblc. lit 1811 he published L'Eyypte sous less l'harawis, a study of the geography of ancient Egypt. Afterwards he essayed the devipherilielit of the Egyptian hieroglyphics to which the dis covery of the Rosetta stone had attracted wide spread interest. His brilliant results were first communieated in his Lettre d .1lonsicur /Meier to the Imblie (1822), and were more fully stated in his du hkroglyphiauc It is generally recognized that the attempt, to ascribe priority in the decipherment of hiero glyphics to Dr. Thomas Young, and even to charge I'hampollion itith plagiarizing Young's discoveries, were entirely unjust. Champollion worked independently, and in any case Young's results published in 1519 were of slight impor tance as compared with those obtained. by Champollion. ('hampoilion was sent by the French c:overnment to study the inliselnlis of Italy in 182-4, and in IS28 to Egypt, where he joined a Tuscan expedition, headed by After his return he hecame a member of the French Aeadi•ie des Inscripthms (1830), and in 18:12, professor of Egyptology at the Col li•ge de Fran•e. His premature death was doubt
1e,s due to constant overwork. llis genius and his untiring industry arc most clearly shown in his posthumous: works. His Grammaire ..,.3(;) and hi, Dirt ionna i(:rogly phi(' lie (IS-111 were both unfinished at his death. llis WM/ 7?SeritCS 184.1, et seq.), at first in in complete form, gives a more adequate idea of the results of his Egyptian journey 111;111 the more ex tensive .1/onitmcnts (le l'Egyptc, published 1535 et seq. of the numerous books and essays pub lished during his lifetime, the most noteworthy are P‘ottlo'ml ('(raplien (1S2-11: Sur l'('eriture buratiam I IS211; Sur. l'('eriture (kluotique 118241. After Champollion's death, Egyptology retrograded temporarily. and 1111101 time was wasted in fruitless disputes on the merits of I'lianipollion's system. At present, no one doubts the enormous debt of gratitude owed by science to the great deeipherer, whose system has been bril liantly eolifirtned by modern discoveries, although it has been greatly developed and improved in matters of detail. Consult Ain'• Champollion. tit u.r rhainpollion, kyr ric I I In ((acres ((;renohle„1:-IiN).