CLONTARF' (1r., bull's meadow). A town of Ireland. about three miles east-northeat of Dublin (Map: Ireland, E 3). It is much fre quented during the summer months for sea bathing, and there are many handsome villas in the vicinity. Clontarf is celebrated as the place where, hi 1014, Brian Boroimhe (q.v.) met his death while winning a great victory over the Danes. Population. in HMO, about 5000.
CLOOTS, 1:1M_s, or ICLOOTZ, JEAN BAPTISTE Du VAL-DE-GRACE. Mario ( 1755-94). A free thinking philosopher and republican enthusiast of the French Revolution, generally referred to as `Anacharsis ('loots, the Orator of the Hu man Race.' Pe was born June 24, 1755, at Gnadenthal, near Cleves, the son of a German baron of Dutch extraction, and was sent to Paris to be educated when he was only eleven years of age. There lie seems to have imbibed ex tremely rationalistic ideas on religion and poli tics, which were strengthened by a short residence in Berlin, where he came in contact with thePots dam philosophers, one of whom was his uncle, Cornelius de Palm. Returning to France at the age of twenty-one. Cloots began the campaign of Reason by an attack on revealed religion, and published a curious book, entitled Certitude tics preures du Mahomaisme—a satirical work, which fell somewhat flat. A visit to England, where he became intimate with Burke, was fol lowed by an extended tour on the Continent, which his income of 10.000 livres a year al lowed him to make in ease and comfort. Every where he took occasion to preach his doc trines of liberty. equality, and fraternity. and in several countries he barely escaped imprison ment. From Portugal the news of the outbreak of the French Revolution sent him post-haste to Paris, where lie at once began to play an im portant part. lie was instrumental in spreading
republican principles in Brittany, and un Anne 19, 1790, he appeared at the bar of the National .Assembly at the head of a throng of Parisians from the slums dressed up in fantastic costume to represent the nations of the earth. and de livered a magniloquent oration in behalf of Tniversal Republicanism.' To show the sincer ity of his principles. he discarded his rank and titles (though not his income) and stood forth be fore the world as ('loots. Orator of t he Human Rave, Representative of the Oppressed Sovereign Peoples of :Mankind.' ('loots was made a French citizen, and in 1702 was elected to the National Convention. Ile urged a war of republican propaganda against Europe, and voted for the death of the King. 'in the name of the human race.' Ile was popular with the visionaries and with the lower orders of Paris. but ineurred the enmity and suspicion of Robespierre. In coir-equenee, (loots ex pelled first from the Jacobin Club, and subse quently from the Convention. Ile was finally arrested in 1794, and after a summary trial was sent to the guillotine, together with Hilbert and his followers, March 24, 1794. He left a number of pseudo-philosophical and politic-al works, the chief of which are L'o•ateur du genre humain- (1791) and Base constitutionelle de la republiaue du genie humain (1793). For his life. consult : Avenel, Anaeha•sis Cloots, l'ora tear du genre humahi (Paris. 1865) : ft/stoic-0 des journaoLr et des journalistes de la n'volutiou franeaise, vol. ii.; }tax, Outlines from a New Standpoint (London, 1891).