CONJUNCTION (Lat. conjunctio, from eon jungcre, to join together, from coin-, together + jungere, to join: connected with Lat. jugum, yoke). One of the parts of speech, or classes into which grammarians divide words. Conjunc tions serve the purpose of connecting sentences, parts of sentences, and single words: as `Day ends and night begins. 'William and learn Latin. Charles and James carried the basket between them.' In the first sentence, and con nects two separate affirmations into one com pound sentence. The same is true in the second —the separate affirmations being, 'William learns Latin,' and 'John learns Latin.' In the third sentence, and connects only the two words 'Charles' and `James,' as it cannot he affirmed of either of them alone that he `carried the basket.' In most eases, however, it can be shown that, logically at least, two affirmations are in volved, and that the conjunction really connects the affirmations. Conjunctions may also connect paragraphs. It is not easy to distinguish con junctions from adverbs. In fact, conjunctions were all originally other parts of speech; and the greater part of them are still really adverbs, and owe their conjunctive effect to their significa tion as adverbs. In and and but, whatever may have been the original meaning, we now attend only to the conjunctive effect; or is a shortened form of the pronominal adjective other: and nor is or with the negative prefixed. In such a sentence as, 'I believe that yon are wrong.' that is the demonstrative pronoun, equiv alent to—I believe this, viz. 'you are wrong.' This is clearly seen in the corresponding words in other languages: Ger. doss, Fr. toe, Lat. quad (for the relatives were originally demonstrative pronouns). All the rest might be called adverbial
conjunctions, or conjunctive adverbs; as, 'lle is industrious; therefore he is happy'—that is, 'he is happy for that.' This adverb, or adverbial phrase, expressive of the cause of the happiness, by referring us back for its meaning to the former assertion, has the effect of connecting the two assertions in the mind. Again, 'The messenger arrived while he was speaking.' Here while is equivalent to at the time at which (be was speaking). As an adverbial phrase, this simply indicates the time of the act of 'arriving'; hut as it also expresses that the speaking was going on at. the same time, it thus conjoins the two assertions.
The most important distinction among conjunc tions will be seen in the following pair of sen tences: The sun went down, and the moon rose.
The moon rose, as the sun went down.
The first (compound) sentence contains two simple sentences or assertions, linked together, yet each standing on an independent footing; the two are joined on terms of equality, and are therefore said to be coordinate, and the conjunc tion is called a coordinating conjunction. In the second (complex), the last clause. though a grammatical sentence, contains no logical propo sition, no assertion made for its own sake, but merely states a fact as a modifying circumstance with regard to the assertion contained in the first clause. The sentence of the second clause is therefore subordinate to that of the first, and the conjunction that marks the relation is a subordinating conjunction.