CONSERVATORY (ML. conserratori vm, place for preserving anything, from Lat. con sercare, to preserve. from con-, together + scr rare, to keep, Ar. liar, to preserve). A school for the cultivation of music in all its branches. Besides strictly musical subjects, stage deport ment and the modern languages used in singing (German, (french, Italian) are usually included in the curriculum. Originally, however, a con servatory was not a school of music, but an orphan asylum or institution of a benevolent character for the care of children of the poor. Such children as showed a talent. for music were educated in the art. At first this instruction was given to the inmates only. but subsequently day-scholars also were admitted upon payment of a moderate fee. The oldest conservatory is the Conservatorio Santa Maria di Loreto in Naples, founded in 1537. Within the same century three more conservatories were established in the same city. By order of King Murat these were consolidated. in 1808. under the name Collegio Reale di Musica. Venice had four such insti tutions which ceased to exist with the downfall of the Venetian Republic. To-day the Conserva tory of Venice is known as the Liceo Benedetto Marcello. The success of these schools was so pronounced that soon conservatories were founded all over Italy. the best known are (I) the Regio Conservatorio di Musica, in Palermo, founded 1615; (2) the Liceo Musicale, in Bo logna, founded 1801, noted for its magnificent library, the greater part of which was be queathed to it by Padre and Gaetano Gaspari; (3) the Regio Conservatorio di Mu sics, in Milan, founded 1807; (4) the Civico Institute di Musica, in Genoa, founded 1829; (5) the Liceo Musicale, in Turin, founded 1865; (G) the Liceo Musicale Rossini, in Pesaro. established in 1882 by a gift of 2.300. 000 lire from Rossini. In France the necessity of a school for the education of singers led to the establishment, in 1784, of the Ecole Royale de Chant et de Declamation. During the French Revolution, in 1793. owing to the scarcity of instrumental performers for the army, the course was extended, and the name was then changed to Institut National de Musique. In 1795 it was reorganized and has since been known as the Conservatoire de Musique. To-day it is beyond all question the most famous music-school in the world. Prizes are awarded in all the classes. The highest honor conferred is the Grand Prix de Rome. which entitles the winner to a three years' stay in Italy with a single condition: that the holder send from time to time original com positions as evidence of his progress. Nearly all the famous French composers of the last cen tury have been winners of this prize. (See PRIX nF Roux.) There is scarcely a musician of note in France who has not been at some time a professor in the Conservatory. The directors since its foundation have been Sarette (the founder, 17S4-1814) : Perm-. (1814-22) : Chem bini (1S22-42) ; _Amber (1S42-71) : A. Thomas (1871-96) ; Dubois (1896—). The oldest among tne German conservatories is that of Prague, founded 1811, which, in addition to the usual musical courses, offers also a liberal-culture course. The Vienna Conservatory was opened in 1817 by Salieri as a school for singing. It became a true conservatory in 1821. The most famous conservatory in Germany is that in Leipzig. founded by Mendelssolin and Schumann in 1843. Among its professors have been M. Hauptmann. L. Plaidy, E. F. Richter, Hiller, Gade, Moscheles, Reineeke, and Bren del. Among its pupils were Grieg, Sir A. Sul
livan, Svendsen. Wilhelmj, Kirchner, Jadassohn. The oldest Berlin conservatory was founded in 1850 by Kullak, Marx. and Stern. Among its professors were Billow, Kiel, de Alma. B. Scholz. The Nene Akademie der Tonkunst (chiefly for piano) was opened in 1S55 by Kullak. The most important of the Berlin conservatories is the Kanigliche Hochschule fur Nusik, a branch of the Royal Academy of Arts. It is divided into three parts: (1) Konigliehes Institut fill- Kir chenmusik; (2) Abteilung ftir musikalische Komposition; (3) Abteilung ftir ausiibende Ton kunst. Among the professors have been Joachim, Ph. Spitta, Bargiel. Herzogenberg. The conser vatory of Cologne was founded in 1850 by Hiller. The Dresden Conservatory was founded 1856, and that of Stuttgart in the same year. The famous Kiinigliche Musikschule in Munich, founded 1867. offers, besides the musical, liberal culture courses. Among the other famous Ger man conservatories of to-day are those in Wtirz burg, Frankfort, Hamburg, Breslau, Strassburg, Karlsruhe, Regensburg (church - music). Be sides these public or State conservatories there are also a number of not less famous private conservatories, such as those of Schar wenka, Schwanzer, Klindworth, Freudenberg. Switzerland also boasts some efficient conserva tories in Geneva, Zurich, Basel, Bern. One of the greatest and best-known conservatories is that in Brussels, founded 1813, among the di rectors of which were Yetis and Gevaert. The conservatories in Liege and Ghent are also fa mous. In Antwerp Peter Benoit founded, in 1867, entirely after German models, the well known Vlaamsche Muzickschool. Nor is Holland behind in the efficiency of her conservatories. The Maatschappij tot van tonkunst was opened in 1862 at Amsterdam. Also the con servatories in Rotterdam and The Vague have risen to importance. The oldest conservatory in Russia is that of Warsaw, founded 1821; the most famous, that in Saint Petersburg, es tablished 1862. Among its professors were Zaremba, Anton Rubinstein. Leschetitzky, Wieni awski, Davidoff. and Tschaikowski. A conserva tory was also founded in Moscow in 1804 by Nicholas Rubinstein. In England we find five conservatories in London—the Royal Academy of Music (1822) ; the London Academy of Music (18611: the Trinity College Conservatory (1872) : the Guildhall School of Music (1880). The best of all is the Royal College of Music, established originally by Sir Arthur Sullivan as the National Training School of Music (1876). Sir George Grove was the first director under the reorganized administration (18S3-94). lie was succeeded (1S94) by C. H. Passy. All other European countries have now conservatories of more or less importance. In the United States music has made enormous strides within the last quarter of a century, and conservatories have been founded in nearly all thelarge• cities. The best-known is the National Conservatory of Music of America, founded in New York, 1885. For a time A. Dvcak was the director. He was succeeded by Emil Paur. Among its professors have been Anton Seidl, R. Josetry. 13. 0. Klein, D. Buck. Other well-known conservatories are the Peabody Institute in Baltimore (1871), the Cin cinnati College of Music (1878), the New Eng land Conservatory of Music in Boston • Besides. some of the great American universities have added a complete course of music to their regular curriculum, as Harvard (John K. Paine), Yale (Horatio W. Parke•), Columbia E. A. MacDowell).