CORNWALL (AS. Cornwcallas, from Welsh, Ir., Bret. corn, horn, Lat. corn a, Gk. Kipac,keras, Goth. /mini. Eng. horn + AS. wee lies, strangers, Ircant, Welsh, Ger. •eiscit, foreign, Lat. Volcw, name of a people). A maritime county forming the southwest extremity of England (Map: Eng land, B 6). Its area is 1357 square miles. most.of which is arable or in meadow and pasture. Corn wall is a mining as well as an agricultural county, and has important pilchard fisheries. The chief towns are Bodmin (the county town), Launceston, Penzance. and Falmouth. Popula tion, in 1891, 322,571; in 1901, 323,000.
Cornwall is rich in remains of the ancient Cel tic culture. These comprise cromlechs or dolmens, found chiefly in the Land's End district; mono liths, circles, and avenues of stone, caves, cliff and hill castles. The products of the Cornish tin-mines were famous in the ancient world, and furnished the Phomicians with one of their chief articles of trade. The alwen•e of Eastern coins and inscriptions. however, would seem to indi cate that the Phoenicians never set foot in Britain, but carried on their trade indirectly through Gaul. After the Saxon Conquest Corn wall constituted part of the British Kingdom of Danmovia, which held out. against the kings of Wessex till 920, when Athelstane captured Exeter. At the time of the Norman Conquest
the Saxons were in full possession of the land. Christianity was introduced probably as early as the fifth century, and the inhabitants main tained an independent priesthood till the tenth century, when the country was annexed to the see of Canterbury. William the Conqueror gave nearly the whole of Cornwall to his half-brother, Robert of Montain, who was followed by a line of powerful earls, of whom the most celebrated was Riehard, the second son of John, elected in 1257 King of the Romans. In 1336 Cornwall was created a duchy for the Prince of Wales, by whom it has continued to he held. During the Civil War the inhabitants of Cornwall were in tensely loyal, and supplied Charles I. with some of his bravest soldiers. Royalist victories were won at Braddoc Down (January 19, 1643) and Stamford Hill (May 15, 1643). From Sudeley Castle Charles I., on September 10. BD& issued a proclamation to the people of Cornwall, thank ing them for their great devotion. Copies of this letter are still to be seen in a number of churches. See' CORNISH LANGUAGE AND LITERA TURE.