CRUELTY TO CHILDREN, PREVENTION OF. I wing to the long survival of the Boman idea of parental power I see CRUELTY), and the compara tively late growth of a tendency toward socialis tic legislation, it was not until very recent times that organized effort in this direction became common. Curiously enough, the movement in the direction of organization, in the United States at least, did not take definite shape until eight years after that for the prevention of cruelty to animals. The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was organ ized in January, 1875. and within five years ten other societies followed. from Boston to San Francisco. As the movement grew, some so eieties originally intended for the protection of animals added the care of children to their pur pose. In other cases 'humane societies' were or ganized to cover both purposes. The total num ber of societies in the United States in 1900 for the protection of children, or children and ani mals, was 161. They were brought into close relations by the Humane Association (q.v.). which has included societies for the protection of children since 1SS7. As in the case of ani mals. their work is two-fold—the promotion of better legislation in their field and the diligent enforcement of existing laws. They also investi gate cases of alleged cruelty or neglect, and pre sent to the courts such facts as they learn. The
New York society exceptionally includes the investigation of cases of destitution. By the work of the agents whom it stations in all the magistrates' courts it has come to have a power ful advisalry influence on the commitment of des titute, neglected, and wayward children in New York City, thus affecting the live,. on an aver age, of about 15,000 children. These societies in general are private corporations, supported by subscriptions. although in New York. Philadel phia. and a few other places. sonic aid has been piven from public fundo. In the State of In. diana since 1849 board, of children's guardians have been organized by law. which not only in vestigate cases of cruelty and neglect and secure the punishment of the offenders. but also under take subsequent oversight of the children. The Colorado Humane Society was made by the Leg islature of 1001 a 'State bureau of child and ani mal protection.' with an appropriation of $3000 per annum for two years: this, however. re mains under private control, though three State officers are made ex officio members of its board of directors. Consult Folks, The Care of Degti lute, Yeab'eted, and Delinquent Children (New York, 1902). See DEPENDENT CHILDREN.