CLEMENS, SAMUEL LA NGHORNE An American novelist and humorist. better known as 'Mark Twain'—a name derived from calls used in taking soundings on the Missis sippi, and first employed by Mr. Clemens in newspaper work in 1863. It had previously been taken as a pen-name by Capt. Isaiah Sellers, in the New Orleans Picayune. Mr. Clemens was born at. Florida, Mo.. November 30, 1835. He re ceived the common-school education of a frontier town. entered a printing-office in 1848, and. be coming an expert compositor. worked at this trade in Saint Louis. New York, and oilier cities. In 1851 he gave up printing. and became a steam boat pilot on the Mississippi, accumulating a fund of experience that he was later to turn to unique literary account. The Civil War closed this livelihood to him. He joined a volunteer squad of Confederate sympaibizem remaining with the command for a few weeks, but seeing no active service. Then he went to Nevada with his brother, who had been appointed Territorial Secretary, and at Virginia City became a reporter and staff writer for thd Territorial Enterprise, revealing here first to the public his powers of humorously exaggerated description and sarcas tic wit. From Nevada he followed the trend to Ls:an Francisco, tried mining in Calaveras County, made a voyage to the Sandwich Islands, and at tracted attention as a 111111101'011K lecturer and writer of localized fiction. The success of his lectures and a book called by the name of the first story, 7'he dumping Frog of Calaveras County (1867), led to his participating, with journalistic intent, in au excursion to the Ori ent. his letters about his trip, in revised form, became the well-known io-noccuts Abroad (1869), which won him fame on both continents. Then for two years (1869-71) Clemens edited the Buf falo Express. In 1872 he gathered reminiscences of far-Western life in Roughing It. He moved to Hartford and became a frequent contributor to magazines and journals, chiefly in a vein of exag gerated humor. Hie next book was The Gilded
Age (1873), written in collaboration with Charles Dudley Warner, and afterwards success fully dramatized. Then came The Adventures of Toot Sawyer (1876). A second trip to Europe furnished material for A Tramp Abroad (1880) ; then followed The Stolen. White Elephant (1882) ; The Prince and the Pauper (1882), an historical romance; Life on the Mississippi (1883) ; and Huckleberry Finn (1885). In 1884 he engaged in the publishing enterprise of Charles L. Webster and Company, the failure of which, about a decade later, led him to make a lecture tour around the world (1895-96), by means of which he reestablished his fortune and more than cleared his commercial honor. For ten years after 1890, Mr. Clemens lived chiefly in Europe. During this period lie published A Connecticut Yankee at Bing A rthur's Court (1889) ; The America), Claimant (1892) ; Merry Tales (1892) ; The £1,000,000 Bank .Vote (1893) ; The Tragedy of Padd'ahead Wilson (1894) ; Tow Sawyer Abroad (1894) ; Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (1896) ; More Tramps A broad (1897); Following the Equator (1897); The Man that Corrupted Hadleybnry (1900) ; and since his return to America A Double-Barrgled Detective Story (1902). A uniform edition of his works is issued by the Harpers. Although popularly known as a humorist, Mr. Clemens has a thoroughly serious side to his character, as has been shown by his discussion of political questions. He is also gifted with literary acu men, as he showed in a review of Professor Dow den's Life of Shelley, and in other papers subse quently collected in book form. But his best, and perhaps his most permanent work, has been done as a picaresque novelist in the Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of huckleberry Finn. No other writer has so vividly por trayed the irresponsible American boy, or so given his readers an adequate impression of the large. homely. spontaneous life led by native Amerieans in the great Valley of the Mississippi.