DISRAELI. diz-rall or diz-W1T. BENJAMIN, En r1 of Beaconsfield ( 1SO4-S1 ) . An English author and statesman. Ile was born in London, December 21. 1804, the sun of Isaac D'Israeli, author of Curiosities of Literature, who belonged to a Jewish family. His education was care fully superintended by his father. In 1821 he was articled to a solicitor with a view to a Government office, but, finding the study of the law uncongenial, he withdrew his name from Lincoln's Inn in 1831. He had meanwhile be come famous as an author, having published his book Gray in Iti26. lle continued his literary career, and spent three years (1828-31) traveling in Spain, Italy, and the Levant. lie was, however, more ambitious for political than for literary celebrity, and after two unsuccessful attempts to enter Parliament as a Radical. he succeeded in entering as a Tory front :Maidstone in 1S37. Before this time, his political pam phlets, especially his l'indirutirm of the British constitution, Which Peel vonimentled, had at tracted wide attention. In the llouse his maiden speech was so much in the grand style, and de livered with so many extravagant gestures, that it excited ridicule. Much disconcerted, Disraeli stopped abruptly, making, however. the prophetic remark, shall sit down now, but the time is coming when you will hear me." From this time on he studied carefully the style of successful Parliamentary orators and propagated his politi cal tenets in his novels, l'oningsby (1844) ; ( 1845 ; and Tanered ( 1S47 ) . Looking toward the Stuart monarchy for inspiration. he held that the Government from 16SS to 1832 had been a Whig oligarchy. but that now the Crown. re leased by the Reform Bill, might regain some of its power., thereby solving many modern politi cal and social problems. This idea, phis his Se mitic ideals. was a tenet of the Young English Party, of which he became the leader. In 1843 the landed aristocracy and country gentry found in him a spokesman for the dissatisfaetion with which they regarded the threatened relaxation of the protective system. In 1846 he made it most bitter attack on Peel in the debate on the repeal of the Corn Laws, and on the death of Bentinck. in 1848. he became the acknowledged leader of the protectionist party in the Com Ile bore generous testimony to the worth of his predeee-sor in his Lord Ocorge Bentinck: A Biography (1352). The same year, the Earl of Derby offered him the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer. a position which he held with
honor and credit. Seeing that the nation now desired free trade, he coolly discarded pro tection. Eis second budget was, however, re jected by the Commons and the Cabinet resigned in December. 1852. Disraeli did not resume his position until the second Derby Ministry (l858). I hie of his greatest disappointments was Derby's refusal to form a Ministry with the aid of the Peelites in IS57. as Disraeli thought the country ready for his favorite reforms. There was but a scanty majority for the Ministry of 1858. and in 1859 Disraeli's reform measure, the weak 'Franchise' Bill, was rejected.
the seven years of Liberal rule that followed, Disraeli had to contend not only against the popularity of Lord Palmerston, hut against suspicion and dissatisfaction in his own party. ills talents, spirit, a nil persistency were so great during this trying time that he won admiration from all, even from his opponents.
(\'hen Derby re(uni(d to pmccr in 151:1i, 1)1 maeli again liiiaiio' l LanecI1oi of the Exchequer, a iii in ISd5 lie succeeded ]herby as Premier. In the eu.uirig elcetion ut that lr.afe('r, he was dyIs:ned by an ovemtf heluiing iiajorny.
Li Is7( he returned to putt. r with a safe l'ou scrt'alive rirajurrty for the tirst Bait' iu liis earct'r. .\ltltouglr his \linistry assured ninny useful reforms, like the different factory acts, the poor law amendment, and the artisans' dwell ing set=, it hccnmc fat nous chicly' through its fur eign policy. conducted by the strong Laud of 1)israeli himself. liis policy Was aggressive and weitttallv iinperial. lie acquired it ntrol of the -'uer. ('anal, iulcrtcred in _\fgh:urist it to thwart liussia. and in 18i7 proclaini•d the Queen of I:ngland 1:niprvss of Iiuliii. 11c called a halt to the Russian advance upon Constantinople in 1,~7N, sending a lIritisli fleet to the Dird:uielles nail a diyisiou of the India _\run• to N;ilta, and proudly declared on iris return after making the Treaty of Berlin tlmt he brought pence with honor, 1n .\frica tbpIr:uisviiaI Was :iuiexeil an(1 the potter of the Zulus broken. In I530, bofr pvher, lii.. \linistn• was overthrown. This health huni crc this required lritn to withdraw from the lc idcrship of the Ilousp of ('outsuuns, and in 1S73 lie hail entered the liaise of Lords as the Earl of Beaconsfield. On _\pril 1!1, 1S91, he died in London.