DEAK, FERENCZ (Francis) (1803-76).
An Hungarian statesman, born at Siijtor, in the County of Zala. Ile studied law at Raab. prac ticed as an advoeate in his native eounty, and soon became noted for his eloquence and enlight ened patriotism. Elected in 1832 to the National Diet, Den, as leader of the Liberal opposition, resisted every attempt of the imperial Govern ment to infringe on the constitutional rights of Hungary. At the same time he labored for its internal improvement, promoting measures fin the elevation of the peasantry, and advocated the abolition of exemption from taxes enjoyed by the nobility, of which lie was himself a member. His views on the last point displeased a portion of his eonstituents, and he declined to servo in the Diet- of 1843-44, but he eontinned to direct the policy of the :Moderate Liberal Party. After the Revolution of March, 1848, he became Alin ister of ,lust ice in the Cabinet of Count Bat thyanyi (q.v.), and formed the project of effeet ing a general reform in the administration it justice in Hungary. which, however, the revolu tionary war rendered impossible. Dein: used every effort to ward off the struggle and to arrive at an arrangement with Austria. When the rupture seemed inevitable and the Committee of Defense was formed, with Kossuth at its head, Defik resigned his portfolio. At the close of 1848 lie was sent to the camp of the Austrian commander, Windiseligratz, to negotiate for peace, but the attempt failed. Deftk arrested. but was soon released and took up his abode at Pest. Though repeatedly invited to act as mediator be tween the dynasty and the Hungarian nation, De:1k did not return to public life instil 1860, when Frith-is Joseph promised to restore to Hun gary its constitutional liberties. Returned by the eity of Pest to the Diet in 1801. lie became the aeknowledged leader in that assembly. In the Diet appointed him to draw tip the ad dress to the Emperor. This address demanded the restoration of the Constitution of 1848, and an independent Ifungarian Ministry. The Em peror thereupon announced the dissolution of the Hungarian Diet. After the disastrous issue of the war between Austria and Prussia in 1866, the Eniperor found himself compelled to accede to all the demands of Hungary, as formulated by DeAk. The Austrian monarchy was reorganized on its present dualistic basis, and Francis .Toseph was crowned \rah great pomp as Constitutional King of 'Hungary in IS67. De:ik remained until
his death (January 29. 1876) the leader of his party in the Diet. His funeral was the oc casion of extraordinary manifestations of sorrow throughout Hung,rary. Deiik is universally ad mitted to have been one of the ablest of Euro pean statesmen. Ile was a man of the loftiest character, kindly and simple in his ways. As an orator he was irresistible by the sheer force of his logic, and he was in all his political actions actu ated by a devotion to truth and fairness which won for him the name of the 'Hungarian Aris tides.' Consult: Forster, •ranci.s lludigarian Skit isinan (London, 1880) ; and T.aveleye, "Fe renez Beak," in La et Ilittriehe (Paris, 1870) : Csengery, Franz [leak, authorized Her titan translation by Heinrich (Leipzig, l817-78).
DEAL (formerly Dole, from Icel. dab-, Norw. dal, Engl. dole). A municipal borough, market town and sea-bathing place, in Kent, England, on the North Sea, between North and South Fore land, eight miles north-northeast of Dover (Map: England. Il 5). The fine anchorage of the Downs extends seven or eight miles between Deal and the Goodwin Sands. The chief branches of in dustry are eonneeted with maritime pursuits, boat-building, sail-making, piloting or hoveling, victualing. and naval stores. The Deal boatmen have long enjoyed a replant ion for fearless cour age in life-saving, opportunity for which is given in the frequent wrecks that occur on the treach erous Goodwin Sands. Population, in 1891, 9000; in 1901, 10,600. Deal has been one of the Cinque Ports since the thirteenth century. The coast near Deal was formerly defended by three castles, built by Henry VIII. These are Deal Castle, Sandown Castle. and Walmer Castle. The last, in which the Duke of Wellington died in 1852, is now the official residence of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. .Tulins Cesar, with two legions in S2 ships. landed at Deal in B.C. 55.
DEAL (Dan. tied, Her. Dick% board, plank, AS. duel, plank, Milk, board). The trade-name for fir boards exceeding six feet. in length and seven inches in width. They are also occasion ally called planks, though this term is now more loosely applied. Pieces of smaller dimensions are called battens. Deal are usually three in•hes thiek, and when sawed into thinuer pieces they are called boards. When a deal is sawed into twelve or more thin planks, they are called leaves.